"Fls polygamous; tep 6, spreading, clawed at base, bearing a pair of glands at the base of the blade; filaments adnate to the claws; anthers extrorse, obcordate, with confluent thecae; ovary superior, 3-lobed, each lobe terminated by a short style; capsule ovoid, septicidal, subtended by the withered perianth; seeds several, elliptic, thick about the center, bordered by a firm wing; poisonous perennial herbs from stout rhizomes, with elongate sheathing lvs and a larger, terminal, pubescent panicle of green or greenish fls. 5, N. Amer."
Bodkin, N. L. 1978. A Revision of North American Melanthium L. (Liliaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland. Leinfellner, W. 1961. Zur Kenntnis des Monokotyledonen — Perigons. III. Die Perigonblatter einiger weiterer Melanthioideen (Melanthium, Zygadenus, Anticlea, Toxicoscordion, Veratrum und Kreysigia). Osterr. Bot. Z. 108: 108–210. Zimmerman, J. H. 1958. A Monograph of Veratrum. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin.