Monotropa L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 387. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • [Greek monos, one, and tropos, turn or direction, alluding to flowers all turned in one direction on inflorescence axis]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Monotropa L. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Herbs, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic. Stems absent. Leaves absent. Inflorescences racemes or solitary flowers, nodding at emergence from soil, becoming erect in fruit, axis fleshy and fibrous, persistent after seed dispersal, white or yellowish to orange or reddish, 0.1-1 cm diam. proximal to proximalmost flower. Pedicels nodding at anthesis, somewhat longer in fruit; bracteoles sometimes present. Flowers radially symmetric, nodding; sepals absent or (3-)4-5(-6), distinct, lanceolate, oblong, spatulate, or elliptic; petals (3-)4-5(-6), distinct, white to pinkish, reddish, yellowish, or orange, without basal tubercles, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial surface with scattered hairs or hairy, corolla tubular-campanulate; intrastaminal nectary disc present; stamens 8-10(-14), included; filaments ± uniformly slender or slightly broader proximally than distally, glabrous or sparsely hairy; anthers transversely ellipsoid to depressed-ovoid or horseshoe-shaped, without awns, without tubules, dehiscent by 1 slit; pistil (4-)5(-6)-carpellate; ovary (4-)5(-6)-locular; placentation axile; style straight, stout or slender; stigma umbilicate to funnelform, with or without subtending ring of hairs. Fruits capsular, erect, dehiscent basipetally loculicidal, no cobwebby tissue exposed by splitting valves at dehiscence. Seeds 100+, oblong-fusiform, mostly membranously winged. x = 8.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    1. Monotropa L.

    Hypopithys Scop., Hypopitys Hill

    Por J.L. Luteyn.

    Hierbas carnosas sin clorofila, tornándose negras al secarse, emergiendo de masas de raíces perennes; parásitas micorrízicas de raíces. Hojas (brácteas) 6-16(-20) × (2-)3-5(-10) mm, apiñadas, oblongas a lanceoladas, la base redondeada y sésil, los márgenes enteros o ligeramente erosos, el ápice agudo. Inflorescencias racemosas o reducidas a una flor solitaria; pedicelos recurvados; brácteas y bractéolas presentes pero a veces similares al perianto. Flores (3-)4-5(-6)-meras, péndulas, pero erectas en el fruto; cáliz similar a la corola, distinto o en apariencia ausente; corola cilíndrica o campanulada; pétalos imbricados, escuamiformes, distintos, las bases sacciformes y tardíamente deciduas; estambres 8-10(-12); filamentos distintos, teretes, subulados, pubescentes, el verticilo externo (opuesto a los pétalos) más corto que el interno; anteras cortas, reniformes, 1-loculares en la antesis, sin apéndices, abriéndose por una única hendidura terminal o por los extremos de una hendidura que más tarde se abrirá a todo lo largo; granos de polen sencillos, sin hilos de viscina; nectarios de 8-10 lobos pareados entre las base de los filamentos; ovario súpero, (8-)10-lobado, la base (4-)5(-6)-loculada con placentación axilar, 1-locular arriba con 4-5 placentas parietales 2-lobadas; estilo columnar, grueso, carnoso, el estigma infundibuliforme a discoide, inconspicuamente 4-6-lobado. Frutos en cápsulas loculicidas, 4-6-valvadas, globosas a ovoides, con 8-10 surcos, erectas; semillas numerosas, diminutas, caudadas. 2 spp. Circumpolares, boreales y bosques templados, Estados Unidos, México, Mesoamérica, Colombia.

    Bibliografía: Wallace, G.D. Fl. Neotrop. 66: 19-25 (1995).

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 


    Monotropa uniflora L., Sp. Pl. 387. 1753; M. coccinea Zucc.; M. coccinea var. nicaraguensis Lange.

    Hierbas carnosas, surgiendo de raíces masivas, blanquecinas o rojizas cuando frescas pero negras al secarse, escapos hasta 30 cm de alto. Hojas (brácteas) oblongas a lanceoladas, 6–16 (–20) mm de largo y (2–) 3–5 (–10) mm de ancho, apicalmente agudas, basalmente redondeadas y sésiles, márgenes enteros o algo erosos. Inflorescencia escapífera, flores solitarias, péndulas en la antesis, erectas en fruto; sépalos lanceolados, oblongos, linear-oblongos, 12–16 mm de largo, los márgenes erosos; pétalos oblongos, obovados o espatulados, 8–16 (–20) mm de largo, apicalmente redondeados, basalmente sacciformes, márgenes erosos distalmente, blancos en la antesis; estambres ca 11–13 mm de largo, las anteras peltadas, sin espolones. Cápsula subglobosa, ca 11–13 mm de diámetro; semillas en forma de huso, 1 mm de largo.

    Poco frecuente a localmente abundante, en bosques de pino-encino-liquidambar, zona norcentral; 600–1600 m; fl sep–feb, fr oct–mar; Moreno 20453, Stevens 21205; Canadá hasta Colombia y desde el noreste de Asia hasta los Himalayas. Un género con 2 especies, principalmente circumboreal aunque una de las especies se extiende hasta la zona ecuatorial.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Herbs perennial, mycoparasitic, lacking chlorophyll. Axis nodding, white to reddish. Leaves absent or reduced to laminar structures. Inflorescence scapose or racemose arising from persistent root system. Flowers solitary or in several-flowered racemes, often nodding at anthesis, usually erect in fruit, bracteate. Sepals 4 or 5, usually appressed to petals. Petals 3–6, oblong, often saccate at base, apex dilated. Stamens 8–12 in two series of alternating unequal lengths; anthers horizontally reniform, with terminal slit. Disk of 8–10 distended paired lobes adnate to base of ovary. Ovary (3–)5(or 6)-loculed, with axile placentation; style base sharply differentiated from ovary. Capsules globose to narrowly ovoid, loculicidally dehiscent, valves with marginal fibers; perianth segments early deciduous at fruiting. Seeds many, fusiform, minute; testa thin, prolonged at both ends, minutely reticulate. n = 16, 24.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fleshy herbs lacking chlorophyll, blackening in drying; tawny, reddish or orangey to translucently white; mycorrhizal root parasites (often considered saprophytic); flowering stems nodding at tip but erect in fruit, 1-15 flowers each borne in the axil of an upper more or less appressed, erose-margined bract, the pedicels recurved, ebracteolate. Flowters (3-)4-5(-6)-parted; calyx of 1-5, lanceolate, deciduous, bractlike scales; corolla campanulate, (3-5)6-parted, the petals erect, imbricate, scalelike, distinct, basally saccate and tardily deciduous; stamens 8-10(-12), the filaments distinct, terete, subulate, pubescent, the outer whorl (opposite the petals) shorter than the inner, the anthers short, kidney- shaped, 1-locular at anthesis, opening by a single terminal slit or by ends of a slit which may later open along its entire length; pollen grains single; nectaries of 8-10 paired lobes between the filament bases; stigma funnel-shaped to discoid, obscurely 4-6-lobed, the style columnar, thick, fleshy, the ovary superior, (8) 10- lobed, (4-)5(-6) loculate basally with axile placentation, I-locular above with 4-5, bibbed parietal placentas. Capsule globose to ovoid, 8-10-grooved, erect, loculicidally 4-6-valved; seeds numerous, minute, tailed.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 4
    • ]. 

    "Pet 4–6(–8), distinct, all or some saccate at base, the cor urceolate or broadly tubular; sep 0–5; stamens 8 or 10 (–14), on slender, hairy filaments, alternately longer and shorter; anthers transverse, opening by 1 or 2 clefts across the top; ovary 4–5(6)- locular; style short, thick; stigma broad, peltate, umbilicate; capsule ovoid to subglobose, loculicidal, opening from the top downward; white, yellow, pink or red plants, turning black in drying, with erect stems beset with small scale-lvs, nodding fls the same color as the stem, and erect frs. 2, N. Hemisphere."

  • Provided by: [C].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 



  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 4
    • ]. 


    known from Central America.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    [Greek monos, one, and tropos, turn or direction, alluding to flowers all turned in one direction on inflorescence axis]


     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora de Panama
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).