Panicum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 55. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Panicum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000027882. Accessed on: 08 Jul 2020'

General Information

113. Panicum L.

Por G. Davidse.

Anuales o perennes. Vainas redondeadas o raramente carinadas; lígula una hilera de tricomas o una membrana ciliada o sin cilios, raramente ausente; láminas lineares a ovadas. Inflorescencia una panícula abierta a contraída, las ramas a veces racemiformes, generalmente solitarias, raramente verticiladas. Espiguillas globosas a aplanado-convexas, dorsalmente comprimidas, sin arista, con 2 flósculos; desarticulación generalmente por debajo de las glumas, la espiguilla caediza como una unidad, a veces también por debajo del flósculo superior; glumas y lema inferior generalmente herbáceas o la gluma inferior membranácea; gluma inferior generalmente más corta que la espiguilla, menos comúnmente ausente o tan larga como la espiguilla; gluma superior y lema inferior generalmente similares, generalmente tan largas o casi tan largas como la espiguilla; flósculo inferior estaminado o estéril; pálea inferior tan larga como la lema inferior, reducida o ausente; flósculo superior bisexual, generalmente sésil, a veces cortamente estipitado; lema y pálea superiores endurecidas, la lema generalmente lisa y generalmente glabra, a veces rugosa o pelosa, los márgenes enrollados hacia adentro; lodículas 2; estambres generalmente 3 (2 en P. laxum y P. hians); estigmas 2. Fruto una cariopsis; embrión 1/3-1/2 del largo de la cariopsis; hilo punteado. Aprox. 500 spp. Cosmopolita.

En las descripciones el largo de las ramas se refiere a la rama más larga de cada inflorescencia.

Bibliografía: Hitchcock, A.S. y Chase, A. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 15: 1-396 (1910); 17: 459-539 (1915). Palmer, P.G. Brittonia 27: 142-150 (1975). Zuloaga, F.O. Darwiniana 23: 639-649 (1981); 26: 353-369 (1985); Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 463-478 (1987a); Grass Syst. Evol. 287-306 (1987b); Zuloaga, F.O. y Sendulsky, T. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 420-455 (1988).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annuals or perennials. Culms erect, geniculately ascending or decumbent. Leaves basal or cauline; leaf blades filiform or linear to lanceolate or ovate, usually flat. Inflorescence usually a terminal open panicle, variously condensed or occasionally spicate rarely racemose. Spikelets usually symmetrical and dorsally compressed, disarticulating below the glumes; 2-flowered, the lower floret staminate or barren, the upper bisexual. Glumes herbaceous to membranous, ovate or oblong, obtuse to acute, acuminate or cuspidate; lower usually shorter than the spikelet, rarely equal, an internode between the glumes sometimes present, upper glume as long as spikelet, or slightly shorter; lower lemma similar to upper glume, with or without a palea; upper floret coriaceous, bony or cartilaginous, the margins of the lemma inrolled and clasping the palea, apex obtuse to acute or apiculate, crested or excavated. Hilum rounded to oval. x = 9, 10.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    PANICUM L.

    Por Gerrit Davidse

    Anuales o perennes; plantas hermafroditas o polígamas. Vainas redondeadas o raramente carinadas; lígula una hilera de tricomas o una membrana ciliada o sin cilios, raramente ausente; láminas lineares a ovadas. Inflorescencia una panícula abierta a contraída, las ramas a veces racemiformes, generalmente solitarias, raramente verticiladas; espiguillas globosas a aplanado-convexas, dorsalmente comprimidas, sin arista, con 2 flósculos; desarticulación generalmente por debajo de las glumas, la espiguilla caediza como una unidad, a veces también por debajo del flósculo superior; glumas y lema inferior generalmente herbáceas o la gluma inferior membranácea, gluma inferior generalmente más corta que la espiguilla, a veces ausente o tan larga como la espiguilla, gluma superior y lema inferior generalmente similares, generalmente tan largas o casi tan largas como la espiguilla; flósculo inferior estaminado o estéril; pálea inferior tan larga como la lema inferior, reducida o ausente; flósculo superior bisexual, generalmente sésil, a veces cortamente estipitado; lema y pálea superiores endurecidas, la lema generalmente lisa y generalmente glabra, a veces rugosa o pilosa, los márgenes enrollados hacia adentro; lodículas 2; estambres generalmente 3 (2 en P. laxum y P. hians); estigmas 2. Fruto una cariopsis; embrión 1/3–1/2 del largo de la cariopsis, hilo punteado.

    Género cosmopolita con ca 500 especies; 34 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y 4 adicionales se esperan encontrar. En las descripciones el largo de las ramas se refiere a la rama más larga de cada inflorescencia.

    A.S. Hitchcock y A. Chase. The North American species of Panicum. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 15: 1–396. 1910; A.S. Hitchcock y A. Chase. Tropical North American species of Panicum. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 17: 459–539. 1915; P.G. Palmer. A biosystematic study of the Panicum amarum-P. amarulum complex (Gramineae). Brittonia 27: 142–150. 1975; F.O. Zuloaga. Notas sinónimas en el género Panicum (Gramineae). Darwiniana 23: 639–649. 1981; F.O. Zuloaga. El género Panicum (L.) sección Parviglumia. Darwiniana 26: 353–369. 1985; F.O. Zuloaga. A revision of Panicum subgenus Panicum sect. Rudgeana (Poaceae: Paniceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 463–478. 1987; F.O. Zuloaga. Systematics of the New World species of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae). In: T.R. Soderstrom, K.W. Hilu, C.S. Campbell y M.E. Barkworth. Grass Systematics and Evolution. 287–306. 1987; F.O. Zuloaga y T. Sendulsky. A revision of Panicum subgenus Phanopyrum section Stolonifera (Poaceae: Paniceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 420–455. 1988; F.O. Zuloaga, R.P. Ellis y O. Morrone. A revision of Panicum subgenus Phanopyrum section Laxa (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 770–818. 1992; F.O. Zuloaga y O. Morrone. Revisión de las especies americanas de Panicum subgénero Panicum sección Panicum (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 200–280. 1996.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Spikelets paniculate or sometimes short-pedicelled in one-sided racemes; first glume minute to nearly as long as the spikelet; second glume and sterile lemma nearly equal, similar, the lemma often enclosing a hyaline palea and sometimes a staminate flower; fertile floret indurate, the nerves obsolete, the margins of the lemma inrolled, firmly enclosing the palea.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Hierbas cespitosas, rastreras a decumbentes. Hojas con la vaina redondeada a rara vez carinada; lígula unahilera de tricomas o membrana ciliada; pseudopecíolo ausente; lámina linear a ovada. Infl. una panícula. Es-piguillas dorsalmente comprimidas, sin aristas; desarticulación usualmente por debajo de las glumas; gluma in-ferior más corta que la espiguilla; gluma superior y lema inferior similares, tan largas a más largas que lasespiguillas; flósculos 2, el inferior estaminado a estéril, el superior bisexual; pálea inferior tan larga como lalema inferior, reducida o ausente, la pálea superior endurecida.

  • Provided by: [J].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • "Spikelets with one perfect terminal fl, lanceolate or fusiform to ovoid, obovoid, or globose, usually somewhat compressed dorsiventrally and biconvex; first glume very short or minute and usually scarious or membranous, or in some spp. nearly as long as the second; second glume about as long as the spikelet, herbaceous, green or colored, often prominently nerved; sterile lemma similar to the second glume, enclosing a palea and sometimes a staminate fl; fertile lemma indurate, usually white or pale and smooth or shining, veinless (or sometimes with 5–7 evident veins at full maturity), the margins inrolled over the edges of the indurate or membranous palea, the apex typically obtuse; ligule in most spp. a band of hairs, or obsolete; spikelets usually small, in panicles or spike-like racemes. 500, cosmop. (Dichanthelium) The spp. of subg. Dichanthelium, and especially spp. 21–34, form an intergrading group in which the taxonomic limits are difficult to discern and are still debatable. The flag-lf referred to in the descriptions of some spp. of subg. Dichanthelium is the uppermost lf of the culm."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    "Spikelets with one perfect terminal fl, lanceolate or fusiform to ovoid, obovoid, or globose, usually somewhat compressed dorsiventrally and biconvex; first glume very short or minute and usually scarious or membranous, or in some spp. nearly as long as the second; second glume about as long as the spikelet, herbaceous, green or colored, often prominently nerved; sterile lemma similar to the second glume, enclosing a palea and sometimes a staminate fl; fertile lemma indurate, usually white or pale and smooth or shining, veinless (or sometimes with 5–7 evident veins at full maturity), the margins inrolled over the edges of the indurate or membranous palea, the apex typically obtuse; ligule in most spp. a band of hairs, or obsolete; spikelets usually small, in panicles or spike-like racemes. 500, cosmop. (Dichanthelium) The spp. of subg. Dichanthelium, and especially spp. 21–34, form an intergrading group in which the taxonomic limits are difficult to discern and are still debatable. The flag-lf referred to in the descriptions of some spp. of subg. Dichanthelium is the uppermost lf of the culm."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaf-blades rolled or flat, linear to ovate; ligule a short ciliate membranous rim

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Annuals or perennials

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Spikelets usually spherical, ovate or oblong; glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the lower shorter than, and the upper as long as the spikelet; lower floret ♂ or barren, its lemma usually resembling the upper glume, with or without a palea; upper lemma ± as long as the spikelet, crustaceous, not crested, the margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Caryopsis ± ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Caryopsis more or less ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Superior lemma as long as or shorter than the spikelet, crustaceous, the margins involute and clasping only the edges of the palea.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Inferior floret male or barren, its lemma usually resembling the superior glume, with or without a palea.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the inferior shorter than and the superior as long as the spikelet.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaf laminae involute or flat, linear to ovate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Annuals or perennials.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Spikelets spherical, ovate, lanceolate or oblong.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Synonyms

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    Poaceae
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).