Herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, rarely monocarpic. Roots fusiform or attenuate, simple. Stems 1 or more, erect or ascending, terete, branched or not, very constricted or extended, usually setose, rarely glabrous, ivory malodorous lactiferous, with leaves or not. Basal leaves petiolate, usually glaucous adaxially, variously shaped, both surfaces setose, pinnatilobate, pinnatipartite, pinnatisect, or bipinnatifid, sometimes incised, serrate, or crenate, rarely entire. Cauline leaves if present, similar to basal leaves, but usually sessile, sometimes amplexicaul. Flowers solitary, rarely in cymose racemes, pedunculate or sometimes scapose, erect, extended, usually setose. Flower buds nutant, ovoid or spherical. Sepals 2, rarely 3, shedding as flowers open, mostly setose. Petals 4, rarely 5 or 6, on short receptacles, often caducous, mostly red, rarely white, yellow, orange, or lavender, vivid and beautiful, usually obovate, in 2 whorls, outer whorl larger. Stamens many; filaments white, yellow, green, purple, or red, occasionally blackish, mostly filamentous; anthers spheroidal or oblong. Ovary 1-loculed, superior, usually ovoid, rarely terete-oblong; carpels 4-18, united, setose or glabrous; ovules many, astylous; stigmas 4-18, actinomorphic, united into compressed or steepled disk covering ovary; disk margin crenate or divided. Capsule narrowly terete, obovoid, or spherical, setose or glabrous, rarely spiny, obviously costate or not costate, poricidal under actinomorphic stigmas. Seeds many, black, brown, dark gray, or white, reniform, small, longitudinally striate or alveolate; albumen white, fleshy and rich in oil; embryo hidden in albumen.
Herbs , annual, biennial, or perennial, scapose or caulescent, from taproots; sap white, orange, or red. Stems when present leafy. Leaves: basal rosulate, petiolate; cauline alternate, proximal leaves petiolate, distal subsessile or sessile, sometimes clasping (in P . somniferum ); blade unlobed or 1-3× pinnately lobed or parted; margins entire or toothed, scalloped, or incised. Inflorescences cymiform, with flowers disposed in 1s, 2s or 3s on long scapes or peduncles; bracts present; buds nodding [erect]. Flowers: sepals 2(-3), distinct; petals 4(-6); stamens many; pistil 3-18[-22]-carpellate; ovary 1-locular, sometimes incompletely multilocular by placental intrusion; style absent; stigmas 3-18[-22], radiating on sessile, ± lobed disc, velvety. Capsules erect, 3-18[-22]-pored or short-valved immediately beneath persistent or sometimes deciduous (in P . hybridum ) stigmatic disc. Seeds many, minutely pitted, aril absent. x = 7.
"Sep 2; pet normally 4, white or colored, our spp. never yellow; ovary of 4–many carpels, the placentas deeply intruded as partial partitions; stigmas as many as the carpels, sessile and radiating on a disk terminating the ovary; fr opening by small valves just below the margin of the stigmatic disk; seeds not arillate; herbs with milky or colored juice and large, usually long-peduncled fls terminating the stem and branches. 100, cosmop.Three cult. spp. that occasionally escape in our range are included in the key but not described"
Kadereit, J. W. 1988. Sectional affinities and geographical distribution in the genus Papaver L. (Papaveraceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 63: 139-156. Kadereit, J. W. 1990. Some suggestions on the geographical origin of the central, west and north European synanthropic species of Papaver L. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 103: 221-231. Kiger, R. W. 1973. Sectional nomenclature in Papaver L. Taxon 22: 579-582. Kiger, R. W. 1975. Papaver in North America north of Mexico. Rhodora 77: 410-422. Kiger, R. W. 1985. Revised sectional nomenclature in Papaver L. Taxon 34: 150-152. Novák, J. and V. Preininger. 1987. Chemotaxonomic review of the genus Papaver. Preslia 59: 1-13.
|Poppy, pavot [classical Latin name for poppy; perhaps from Greek papa (pap), alluding to the thick, sometimes milky sap]|