Passiflora L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 955. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Passionflower [Latin passio, passion or suffering, and flos, flower, alluding to floral morphology perceived to symbolize Christ’s crucifixion]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Passiflora L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000028296. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

Vines, glabrous or densely hairy, sometimes glandular. Stems terete to angled; tendrils simple [branched]. Leaves petiolate; stipules leaflike to minutely setaceous, margins entire, serrate, or deeply cleft, sometimes glandular; blade (2)3(–9)-lobed or unlobed, base cuneate to cordate or rarely peltate, surfaces sometimes glandular, glands or nectaries associated with marginal teeth or abaxially near margins or between primary veins. Inflorescences solitary or paired flowers, simple or many-branched [pedunculate cyme with central pedicel often as aborted tendril], secondary inflorescences sometimes present as condensed, axillary (terminal) shoots; bracts 0 or (1–)3, scattered to whorled, margins sometimes glandular. Flowers bisexual or sometimes functionally unisexual [staminate]; hypanthium flattened to cuplike or tubular; sepals sometimes with subapical setose to leaflike projection; stamens 5 [8], usually alternate with petals, borne on short to elongate androgynophore; anthers dorsifixed, versatile; ovary 3[–5]-carpellate, borne at tip of androgynophore. Fruits baccate [capsular or capsulelike berries]. x = 6.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    PASSIFLORA L.

    Trepadoras herbáceas o leñosas (en Nicaragua); plantas hermafroditas. Sépalos 5; pétalos 5 o a veces ausentes; corona y opérculo presentes; estambres 5, filamentos unidos en una columna monadelfa encerrando el ginóforo; pistilo 3 (–4)-carpelar, ovario naciendo en un ginóforo generalmente alargado, estilos 3 (–4), libres o unidos basalmente.

    Un género con unas 400 especies, principalmente neotropicales pero con unas pocas en los Paleotrópicos; 32 especies se tratan para Nicaragua, al menos 2 de ellas naturalizadas. Varias especies adicionales podrían encontrarse eventualmente: P. membranacea Benth. y P. hahnii (E. Fourn.) Mast., especies de las tierras altas las cuales se encuentran tanto hacia el norte como hacia el sur de Nicaragua y están estrechamente relacionadas a P. guatemalensis, pero tienen estípulas enteras y brácteas coloreadas; P. nitida Kunth, una especie de pluvioselva conocida desde Sudamérica hasta el norte de Costa Rica, está estrechamente relacionada con P. ambigua, pero tiene las láminas de las hojas serradas o serruladas; P. subpeltata Ortega, conocida desde México hasta Guatemala y de Panamá a Venezuela, es muy similar a la forma 3-lobada de P. oerstedii pero es fácilmente diferenciable de la forma nicaragüense de esta especie, la cual tiene hojas enteras; P. pittieri Mast., una especie de pluvioselva conocida de Belice a Panamá, es un bejuco que tiene hojas no lobadas, obovadas a oblongo-elípticas, enteras, e inflorescencia de 2–3 flores típicamente terminando en un zarcillo; P. nelsonii Mast. & Rose también se encuentra al norte y al sur de Nicaragua, es muy cercana a P. ligularis Juss. pero tiene glándulas gruesas y elípticas en los pecíolos; finalmente P. ligularis, es una especie montana que si bien se distribuye desde México hasta Bolivia, lo hace principalmente a más de 1500 m de elevación y por lo tanto es posible que no se encuentre en Nicaragua, está estrechamente relacionada a P. seemannii y P. platyloba, diferenciándose de ambas por tener varias glándulas filiformes en los pecíolos. Cierto número de especies se cultivan por sus frutos; comúnmente el jugo de los arilos se extrae para preparar refrescos. Varias especies nativas se colectan con este mismo propósito.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Herbaceous or woody lianas, usually climbing by tendrils, rarely erect herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves alternate, petiolate, basifixed to peltate, simple or very rarely compound, entire to deeply lobed, occasionally with large irregular glandular areas (ocellate) upon the blade; petiole frequently with few to several more or less conspicuous glands. Tendrils volubile, solitary, simple, axillary or

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • produced from the inflorescence. Inflorescence axillary, usually 1-flowered, less frequently cymose and few-flowered, the peduncle jointed and there producing usually 3 inconspicuous and setaceous to large and petaloid involucrate bracts. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, frequently large and showy, perigynous. Hypanthium shallow to relatively deep, the sepals 5, valvate, usually with a cornic- ulate process toward the tip in the large-flowered species; petals 5, rarely absent, inserted at the margin of the hypanthium, green to highly colored; corona of numerous petaloid filaments in 1 to several centripetally decreasing series inserted on the margin of the hypanthium at the base of the corolla. Pistil and stamens borne upon a more or less elongate common androgynophore; stamens 5, borne immediately beneath the pistil, the anthers 2-celled, versatile; pistil 3- or very rarely 4-carpellate, the ovary 1-loculate with 3 or very rarely 4 parietal placentas bearing numerous ovules, the 3-4 stigmas usually quite sessile, rather elongate, radial. Fruit an inflated berry, frequently large, globose to fusiform, containing numerous small hard lenticular seeds immersed in abundant mucilaginous pulp derived from the testa.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Herbaceous or woody perennial vines, rarely shrubs or trees. Leaves simple or rarely compound, alternate (subopposite in one species), entire or dissected, petiolate, usually with extra-floral nectaries on petiole and/or blade; stipules linear to leaflike, often glandular. Inflorescence axillary, cymose; peduncle often highly reduced or absent, central axis developed into a tendril, secondary axes often highly reduced to 1 or 2 flowers; bracts minute to foliaceous, sometimes glandular. Flowers bisexual (rarely plants dioecious). Hypanthium broad to campanulate. Sepals 5, often petaloid, sometimes with a subapical projection. Petals 5 (rarely absent). Corona present at base of perianth in one to several series of showy filaments; innermost series (operculum) membranous, partially to entirely fused, margin entire or fimbriate, often incurved over nectar chamber; extra-staminal nectariferous disk (limen) present around base of androgynophore, fused to base of hypanthium. Stamens (4 or)5(-8); filaments free (rarely connate into a tube around ovary); anthers linear or oblong, dorsifixed, versatile. Ovary on androgynophore, stipitate or sessile, 3(-5)-carpellate; styles 3(-5), free; stigmas capitate. Fruit a berry (rarely a dehiscent capsule). Seeds arillate, compressed, testa pitted; endosperm oily, abundant; embryo straight; cotyledons elliptic or oblong-elliptic; germination epigeal (rarely hypogeal).

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    "Fls 5-merous, perfect; stamens 5, monadelphous around the gynophore; corona a double or triple fringe; styles 3, elongate, with capitate or clavate stigma; fr a berry; herbaceous or woody vines. 400, mostly warm reg."

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 17
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    Morphology

    Stamens 4–5, with the filaments adnate to the gynophore, free at the apex; anthers linear, ovate or oblong, 2-celled, dorsifixed.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Limen (basal corona) close to the base of the gynophore, annular or cupuliform, sometimes wanting.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Nectar-ring (inframedian corona) an annular ridge within or below the operculum, sometimes wanting.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Operculum (middle or membranous corona) membranous, flat or plicate, entire, lacerate or filamentose, rarely wanting.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Fruit dry or pulpy, sometimes an irregularly 3-valved capsule.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Seeds usually numerous, compressed, arillate, with the testa usually scrobiculate and the endosperm fleshy; cotyledons foliaceous.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Ovary oblong or subglobose, borne on a gynophore which is usually elongate, rarely absent; styles 3 or 4, subterminal, cylindrical or clavate; stigmas capitate; ovules numerous, rarely few, attached to 3 rarely 4 placentas.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire, lobed or partite; petiole often with glands; stipules 2 or absent, sometimes foliaceous.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Scandent herbs or shrubs usually climbing by tendrils, rarely erect.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Calyx-tube patelliform, campanulate or urceolate to tubular.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–5, linear-oblong or linear, often coloured inside, sometimes with horns on the back below the apex.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–5 or absent, membranous, ± equal to the sepals but more vividly coloured.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Corona (faucial and supramedian corona) of 1 to several series of distinct or ± united filaments, rarely tubular.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Tendrils usually solitary in the axils of the leaves, sometimes ending the peduncles, rarely absent.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers rather large and handsome, axillary, solitary or in racemes, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual; peduncles articulate, often 3-bracteate.

  • Provided by: [K].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5(–8), free (or in some Asian species partly connate), in older flowers mostly reflexed; anthers dorsifixed, versatile, elliptic to linear

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Androgynophore mostly distinct, 3 mm. or more.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fruit usually indehiscent, ± baccate, often with coriaceous exocarp, globose, ellipsoid or rarely fusiform, containing many seeds.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Gynophore absent or sometimes up to 7 mm.; ovary globose to fusiform; styles 3(–4), free or connate at base; stigmas capitate

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Corona extrastaminal, variously shaped, simple or mostly composed of a usually complicated outer corona consisting of threads, and flat or plicate inner coronas, sometimes with the addition of a nectary ring or annulus

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Sepals and petals free, often brightly coloured; petals mostly resembling sepals, membranous, sometimes absent

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous; hypanthium saucer-shaped to cylindrical

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences sessile or peduncled, 1–many-flowered, with or without a simple tendril, or rarely flowers collected into pseudoracemes; bracts and bracteoles small to large, forming a conspicuous involucre or not

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stipules minute to large

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves mostly alternate, unlobed to deeply lobed, palminerved or pinninerved, petiolate; margin mostly dentate, often with small gland-teeth; petiole with or without glands; blade-glands present or not

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Mostly perennial climbing herbs to large lianas, rarely (not in Africa) shrubs or trees, glabrous or hairy, provided with tendrils

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    For generic synonyms see Harms, and Killip, loc. cit.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Lianes'herbacées ou ligneuses, grimpantes ou rampantes et pourvues de vrilles.'Feuilles'alternes, à pétiole pourvu ou non de glandes ; stipules parfois très développées et foliacées ; limbe entier ou profondément lobé, palmatinervé ou penninervé ; glandes laminaires présentes ou non. Inflorescences axillaires, sessiles ou non, réduites à 1-2 fleurs accompagnées ou non d'une vrille simple, rarement fleurs réunies en pseudoracèmes.'Fleurs'hermaphrodites, 5-mères, à pédicelle articulé, souvent pourvu de 3 bractées formant un involucre parfois très développé ; hypanthium patelliforme à tubuliforme ; sépales libres, munis ou non d'une corne dorsale ; pétales membraneux, parfois nuls ; couronnes extrastaminales de formes variées, généralement composées d'une couronne externe à filaments souvent très colorés, d'un operculum membraneux, entier à courtement denté ou lacinié, d'une couronne interne (limen) entourant la base de l'androgynophore ; anneau nectarifère présent ou non à la base de l'hypanthium ; androgynophore généralement bien développé, présentant souvent des épaississements à la base ; étamines 5, rarement 6-8 ; filets libres ; anthères dorsifixes, versatiles, extrorses à maturité, à déhiscence longitudinale ; ovaire généralement stipité ; styles 3(4), libres ou connés à la base, à stigmates capités.'Fruits'bacciformes, à péricarpe membraneux, charnu ou coriace.'Graines généralement nombreuses, ± comprimées, arillées, à albumen charnu ; cotylédons plats et foliacés.\n\t\t\t\tGenre comprenant environ 370 espèces, dont la grande majorité en Amérique tropicale et quelques unes en Asie et en Océanie tropicales. En Afrique tropicale, de nombreuses espèces ont été introduites comme ornementales ou pour leurs fruits comestibles et plusieurs espèces sont actuellement naturalisées, dont 5 dans l'aire de la Flore ; deux autres espèces, P. ligularis Juss. et P. suberosa L. s'y rencontrent également mais uniquement à l'état cultivé.

  • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herb lianas

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Feuillet, C. and J. M. MacDougal. 2003. A new infrageneric classification of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae). Passiflora 13: 34–35, 37–38. Hansen, A. K. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution in Passiflora. Syst. Bot. 31: 138–150. Krosnick, S. E. et al. 2013. New insights into the evolution of Passiflora subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae): Phylogenetic relationships and morphological synapomorphies. Syst. Bot. 38: 692–713. Muschner, V. C. et al. 2003. A first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1229–1238. Ulmer, T. and J. M. MacDougal. 2004. Passiflora: Passionflowers of the World. Portland. Vanderplank, J. 2000. Passion Flowers, ed. 3. Cambridge, Mass.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Passionflower [Latin passio, passion or suffering, and flos, flower, alluding to floral morphology perceived to symbolize Christ’s crucifixion]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Passifloraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • K
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).