Phaseolus 


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Phaseolus . Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029154. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

PHASEOLUS L.; Minkelersia M. Martens & Galeotti; Alepidocalyx Piper

Por Alfonso Delgado-Salinas

Hierbas trepadoras, postradas o algunas veces erectas, anuales, plurianuales o perennes, con tricomas rectos, glandulares y uncinados, raíz primaria a veces tuberosa, frecuentemente lignificada, raramente fibrosa. Folíolos 3, agudos a acuminados y mucronados en el ápice, redondeados a truncados en la base, enteros o lobados, el terminal ligeramente más largo que los laterales, membranosos a subcoriáceos, estipelas generalmente lineares a ovado-lanceoladas, las superiores ascendentes, las inferiores extendidas, algunas veces nectaríferas; pecíolos generalmente más largos que el raquis, ambos canaliculados, estípulas triangulares a lanceoladas, raramente orbiculares, algunas veces nectaríferas, sin apéndices en el punto de inserción, generalmente retrorsas. Inflorescencias pseudoracimos axilares, ocasionalmente con ejes secundarios, paucifloras a multifloras, fascículos florales en nudos no hinchados, pedicelos generalmente más largos que el cáliz, arqueados en fruto, a veces reflexos, brácteas primarias ovadas a lanceoladas, raramente orbiculares, generalmente persistentes, brácteas secundarias generalmente más pequeñas que las primarias y caducas, bractéolas adnadas al cáliz, pequeñas, iguales o más grandes que el cáliz, generalmente persistentes (a veces ausentes), flores papilionáceas, generalmente rosadas, rojas, lilas, purpúreas o blancas; cáliz campanulado, raramente tubular, verde, con 5 dientes, los 2 superiores generalmente connados, emarginados, los laterales e inferiores triangulares a lanceolados, ocasionalmente largos y foliáceos; estandarte oblongo a orbicular, generalmente reflexo (90) en la antesis, simétrico, emarginado en el ápice, plegado y generalmente engrosado en el punto de doblez, sin mácula, con 2 apéndices semejando una solapa en la base, ocasionalmente con un conjunto extra de apéndices, alas obovadas, generalmente más largas que los otros pétalos, redondeadas, auriculadas basalmente, frecuentemente engrosadas y plegadas, quilla curvada, generalmente con 1.5–3 espiras apicales; estambres diadelfos, el vexilar con una giba o un apéndice en la base, tubo estaminal generalmente con 4 anteras dorsifijas y 5 basifijas, anteras dehiscentes por 2 aberturas; ovario con un anillo nectarífero en la base, 1–20-ovulado, estilo distalmente engrosado y enrollado, con una brocha polínica, estigma generalmente subterminal, introrso, lateral o extrorso. Legumbres linear-oblongas, falcadas o rómbicas, péndulas o raramente erectas, generalmente comprimidas, sin septos, frecuentemente con rostro, dehiscentes o débilmente dehiscentes, valvas delgadas a subcoriáceas; semillas variables en cantidad, forma y color, lisas a tuberculadas, hilo ovado y corto, con lens globoso. Germinación hipogea, a veces epigea.

Género con 50 especies de las zonas calientes y templadas del Nuevo Mundo, principalmente en las regiones montañosas de México; 7 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y 2 más se esperan encontrar. Es un género económicamente importante, 5 de sus especies son cultivadas (P. acutifolius A. Gray, P. coccineus, P. lunatus, P. polyanthus y P. vulgaris), mientras que algunas silvestres son utilizadas localmente. Las descripciones de P. coccineus, P. lunatus y P. vulgaris se hicieron con plantas silvestres y la de P. polyanthus con plantas cultivadas (escapadas). En general, los cultivares contrastan con el silvestre por sus estructuras de dimensiones mayores.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Vines, herbs or subshrubs. Leaves pinnate trifoliolate, the leaflets mostly entire, pubescent or glabrate but minute, uncinate hairs present, the stipels often oblong, thin, glabrous; stipules acute, nervate, often pubescent, not prolonged below the insertion. Inflorescences axillary, the flowers congested in fascicles along the rachis, the nodes not swollen, not glandular, the rachis eglandular; bracteoles ovate or greatly reduced and much shorter than the calyx, nervate, puberulent, persistent at least until anthesis; bracts ovate or lanceolate, nervate, puberulent; pedicels mostly longer than the calyx. Flowers blue, purple, violet, yellow or white; calyx mostly 2-lipped, the upper teeth partly united; standard symmetrical, orbicular, basally appendaged, the wings partly spiralled, apically cucullate, the keel in 2-3 spirals; vexillary stamen free, the free part of the others elongate, the anthers nearly uniform; ovary 1-many ovulate, the style apically thickened, curved in 1.5-2.5 spirals, hairy inside, distally caducous. Legume linear or oblong, straight or slightly curved, not septate, compressed or turgid, sometimes beaked; seeds 1-many, oblong to reniform, the hilum short and cen- tral.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Hierbas postradas o rastreras o (más frecuente) bejucos rastreros o trepadores, anuales o perennes, la raíz primaria que llega a ser tuberosa y lignificada, las ramitas pubescentes con tricomas uncinados, sin espinas; estípulas persistentes. Hojas imparipinnadamente compuestas; pecíolo relativamente largo, sin nectarios glandulares; raquis sin nectarios glandulares; folíolos 3, a veces lobulados. Infls. axilares, racemosas o racemoso-paniculadas, con brácteas ovadas a lanceoladas, generalmente persistentes, y con bractéolas adnatas al cáliz e igual o más grandes que este. Fls. blancas (principalmente en plantas cult.) o rosadas a lila o púrpura a rojas, zigomorfas, pediceladas; sépalos connatos en un cáliz campanulado o (menos frecuente) bilabiado, 5- dentado, los 2 dientes superiores generalmente connatos; pétalos 5, variadamente coherentes, el estandarte generalmente reflexo y engrosado en el punto de doblez, las alas + espiraladas, la quilla 2 ó 3X espiralada; estambres 10, los filamentos connatos (excepto con 1 separado); anteras sin glándulas. Frs. verdes (cuando frescos) a pardo pálido (cuando secos), lineares u oblongos y rectos o curvados, aplanados o abultados, membranáceos a coriáceos, no septados, elásticamente dehiscentes (las valvas espiraladas cuando secas); semillas 1–20, generalmente grisáceas o pardas y moteadas o rayadas, oblongas a reniformes, con el hilo central y corto, sin arilo.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Twining or erect herbs, often with hooked hairs. Stipules basifixed, persistent, not produced below point of insertion. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipels present. Racemes axillary, flowers at swollen nodes. Bracts and bracteoles persistent or deciduous. Ca­lyx 2-lipped, upper pair of teeth connate, lower lip 3-toothed. Corolla yellow, white, red, or purple; petals clawed; standard suborbic­ular, reflexed, sometimes with appendages at base; wings obovate or oblong, adherent to keel; keel linear, beak long, spirally coiled through 1-5 turns. Stamens diadelphous. Style spirally coiled through at least 360°; stigma oblique. Legumes linear or oblong, sub­terete or compressed. Seeds 2 to many, oblong or reniform; hilum shortly linear, estrophiolate.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    "Cal-tube hemispheric, slightly oblique; lobes 5, subequal, shorter than the tube; standard rotund, its sides folded over the other pet; wings semi- obovate, coherent with the keel; keel-pet linear-oblong, at the summit incurved and spirally coiled; stamens 10, diadelphous; style bearded along the upper side, spirally coiled and thickened beyond the middle; fr terete or flattened, with few–several seeds; twining or erect herbaceous perennials with pinnately trifoliolate lvs, small few-nerved stipules and bracts, and small to medium- sized fls each closely subtended by a pair of minute bracteoles. 200+, mainly warm New World."

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Standard rounded, auriculate, often considerably reflexed, with 2 appendages or with only slight appendages at the side of the claw and a transverse constriction above or with none; wings often following the spiral of the keel, often broadened and cucullate at the apex; keel often narrow, elongated, the apex beaked and forming a spiral of 1–5 complete turns.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; upper lip emarginate, bifid; lower lip 3-lobed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually fairly small, yellow, white, scarlet or purple.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; stipules persistent, not prolonged below the point of insertion, striate; stipels present.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, the flowers in fascicles along the rhachis which is swollen at the insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles present, deciduous or ± persistent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs, erect, prostrate or climbing.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Seeds 3–many, oblong or reniform; hilum oblong, short, ± central, without appendages or with them somewhat developed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Pods linear or oblong, sometimes falcate, compressed or subcylindrical, sometimes beaked, filled between the seeds.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ovary oblong to linear, 2–many-ovuled; style tenuous below, filiform and flexible, the apical part cartilaginous and thickened, curved through at least 360°, glabrous or hairy inside towards the summit; stigma oblique on the inner side of the style apex or sometimes smaller and terminal or subterminal, not penicillate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Vexillary stamen free; free part of other filaments usually long; anthers subuniform or 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Seeds 3 to many, oblong or reniform; hilum oblong, short, ± central, without appendages or with them somewhat developed.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Pods linear or oblong, sometimes falcate, compressed or subcylindrical, sometimes beaked, filled between the seeds

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Vexillary stamen free; free part of other filaments usually long; anthers subuniform or 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 basifixed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Ovary oblong to linear, 2–many-ovuled; style tenuous below, filiform and flexible, the apical part cartilaginous and thickened, curved through at least 360°, glabrous or hairy inside towards the summit; stigma oblique on the inner side of the style-apex or sometimes smaller and terminal or subterminal, not penicillate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; upper lip emarginate, bifid; lower lip 3-lobed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Standard rounded, auriculate, often considerably reflexed, with 2 appendages or with only slight appendages at the side of the claw and a transverse constriction above or with none; wings often following the spiral of the keel, often broadened and cucullate at the apex; keel often narrow, elongated, the apex beaked and forming a spiral of 1–5 complete turns

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences axillary, falsely racemose, the flowers in fascicles along the rhachis which is swollen at the insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles present, deciduous or ± persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually fairly small, yellow, white, scarlet or purple

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs, erect, prostrate or climbing

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; stipules persistent, not prolonged below the point of insertion, striate; stipels present

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Herbes , parfois suffrutex, volubiles, étalés ou ± dressés.'Feuilles'pennées 3-foliolées, rarement 1-foliolées, pétiolées; stipules non prolongées au-dessous de l'insertion, striées ou nervées, persistantes; folioles pétiolulées, très variables, entières, hastées ou 3-lobées, les latérales généralement asymétriques; stipelles présentes.'Inflorescences'en racèmes axillaires, pauci- à multiflores; rachis épaissi à l'insertion des pédicelles; bractées ± persistantes.'Fleurs'généralement 2-4-fasciculées sur les nœuds du rachis; bractéoles présentes, souvent plus grandes que les bractées et longtemps persistantes; calice campanulé, discifère, bilabié; lèvre supérieure émarginée à bidentée; lèvre inférieure à 3 lobes ± égaux; étendard ± onguiculé, auriculé à la base, recourbé ou un peu tordu, muni à la face interne de 2 appendices (callosités) ± distincts; ailes onguiculées, souvent plus longues que l'étendard, ± adhérentes au-dessus de l'onglet à la carène et spiralées avec elle; carène onguiculée, linéaire, à rostre spiralé et faisant 1-5 tours, parfois repliée, sigmoïde (?; étamines 10, diadelphes, 9 soudées, la vexillaire libre, à filet ± épaissi au-dessus de l'insertion et parfois muni d'un appendice membraneux; anthères : 5 dorsifixes dont la vexillaire alternant avec 5 basifixes; ovaire sessile à subsessile, 3-∞-ovulé; style épaissi dans le rostre de la carène et tordu avec elle, poilu sur la face interne vers le sommet; stigmate oblique, allongé, interne, parfois très court et terminal à subterminal.'Gousses'linéaires, oblongues ou falciformes, ± rostrées, à style persistant, comprimées ou subcylindriques(?, déhiscentes.'Graines 3-∞, oblongues ou réniformes; hile oblong, court et ± central.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical, comprenant ± 200 espèces dont la plupart d'origine américaine. Au Congo belge, 3 espèces indigènes ou en voie de naturalisation;'P. vulgaris L. y est cultivé.

  • Provided by: [H].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Vines, herbs or subshrubs

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Included Species

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Fabaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • H http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • I Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).