Phoenix L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1188. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Date palm, palmier dattier [derivation uncertain, perhaps for the Phoenicians, known for a dye that was similar in color to ripening dates; name used by Theophrastus for the date palm]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Phoenix L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029298. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

Stems solitary or clustered, short and subterranean to large and aerial, usually rough with very close nodes, often covered with persistent leaf bases. Leaves 8-50, pinnate; leaf sheaths open; pinnae induplicate, regularly or irregularly arranged and then spreading in different planes, at base of leaf modified into short, stout, sharp spines (acanthophylls). Plants dioecious. Inflorescences usually branched to 1 order, borne among leaves; peduncle bearing a prophyll, other bracts much reduced; rachillae often borne in groups or spirals along inflorescence rachis; flowers small, simple, unisexual; male flowers with 6(-9) stamens. Fruits variously colored black or brown, obovoid, oblong, or ellipsoid, usually 1-seeded; mesocarp fleshy, thick and sweet tasting in date palm but thin and bitter in other species; endosperm homogeneous, rarely ruminate; germination remote; eophylls undivided.

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    Stems solitary or clustered, erect or ascending [subterranean], slender to massive, often clothed in old leaf bases. Leaves: sheath fibers soft; petiole not split at base, armed, base not split, not forming crownshaft; blade pinnate; plication induplicate; segments lanceolate, in 1 or more planes; apices acute; basal segments modified into stout spines. Inflorescences axillary within crown of leaves, paniculate, ascending, much shorter than leaves, with 1 order of branching, alike in staminate and pistillate plants; prophyll often caducous, conspicuous, becoming boat-shaped, short; peduncular bracts absent; rachillae glabrous. Staminate flowers borne singly along rachillae; calyx cupulate, 3-lobed; petals 3, free, valvate; stamens 6, free; pistillode inconspicuous or absent. Pistillate flowers borne singly on rachillae; calyx cupulate, 3-lobed; petals 3, imbricate, free; staminodial ring cupulate or deeply 6-lobed; pistils 3 (only 1 developing), distinct; stigmas small. Fruits drupes, berrylike, fleshy; exocarp blackish brown, smooth; mesocarp fleshy or fibrous; endocarp papery. Seeds 1, elongate; endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral [basal]; eophyll undivided, lanceolate. xn = 18.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    PHOENIX L.

    Por Carmen Ulloa Ulloa

    Phoenix canariensis Chabaud, Prov. Agric. Hort. Ill. 19: 293. 1882.

    Palmas solitarias, 10–13 m de alto y 50–70 cm de diámetro, armadas; tallos gruesos con las vainas de las hojas persistentes; plantas dioicas. Hojas pinnadas, numerosas, 5–7 m de largo, las superiores erectas, las inferiores péndulas o arqueadas; pinnas ca 150 pares, arregladas en distintos ángulos, las inferiores modificadas a manera de acantofilos; vaina ca 150 cm de largo, formando una red fibrosa. Inflorescencias interfoliares, 1 vez ramificadas, ca 100 cm de largo, axilares, mucho más cortas que las hojas, brácteas inconspicuas; raquillas no ramificadas, numerosas, arregladas en espiral, amarillo-anaranjadas, sépalos connados en un cúpula baja; flores estaminadas blanquecinas, pétalos valvados, estambres 6, pistilodio ausente; flores pistiladas globosas, pétalos imbricados, estaminodios generalmente 6, carpelos libres, foliculares. Frutos generalmente desarrollándose de un solo carpelo, ovoides, 2–3 cm de largo, anaranjado-amarillentos, residuo estigmático apical, epicarpo liso, mesocarpo carnoso, endocarpo membranoso; semilla conspicuamente acanalada, endosperma homogéneo, eofilo simple.

    Cultivada, Managua; 125 m; fl y fr jun; Stevens 13286; nativa de las Islas Canarias y ampliamente cultivada como ornamental. Género con ca 17 especies nativas de las islas atlánticas de la costa de Africa, continente africano, Creta, Medio Oriente hasta India, Hong Kong, Taiwán, las Filipinas, Sumatra y la península Malaya. Una especie de gran importancia económica es P. dactylifera L. ("dátil"), ampliamente cultivada por sus frutos en áreas semiáridas y posiblemente se encuentre en Nicaragua.

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    Morphology

    Female flower ± globular; calyx cup-shaped, with 3 short triangular lobes; corolla with 3, free, imbricate, usually rounded petals; staminodes 6, minute, sometimes fused to form a low cup; carpels 3, free, somewhat elongate, with short recurved fleshy stigmas; ovule anatropous, basally attached, usually one carpel only developing to fruit

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit with smooth epicarp, sometimes waxy; mesocarp fleshy; endocarp consisting of a thin membrane

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    Seed 1, basally attached, deeply grooved longitudinally; endosperm homogenous; embryo lateral or basal

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Solitary or clustering, acaulescent, shrubby or erect, pleonanthic dioecious palms

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    Trunk usually covered in leaf-sheath bases when young, later smooth

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    Leaves induplicately pinnate; leaf-sheath fibrous; leaflets numerous, single-fold, usually sharply pointed, the proximal few-many small, modified as sharp acanthophylls; the distal held in one or several planes, the surfaces frequently waxy

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescences interfoliar, branching to 1 order; peduncle short or elongating after anthesis, bearing a 2-keeled prophyll enclosing the inflorescence in bud; peduncular bracts absent; rachillae often arranged spirally or in partial spirals, each subtended by a small bract

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flowers borne singly in a spiral along the rachilla, each subtended by an inconspicuous bract

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Male flower often asymmetrical; calyx cup-shaped, with 3 short triangular lobes; corolla briefly tubular with 3 lobes much exceeding the calyx, ± valvate; stamens (3–)6(–9), epipetalous, with short filaments and elongate anthers; pistillode absent, or consisting of 3 minute carpel vestiges

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Germination remote-tubular; eophyll simple, strap-like, plicate.

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Austin, D. F. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environm. Conservation 5: 25--34. Barrow, S. C. 1998. A monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae: Coryphoideae). Kew Bull. 53: 513--545.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Date palm, palmier dattier [derivation uncertain, perhaps for the Phoenicians, known for a dye that was similar in color to ripening dates; name used by Theophrastus for the date palm]

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).