Phragmites Adans.
  • Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559. 1763. (Jul-Aug 1763)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Phragmites Adans. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029331. Accessed on: 16 Oct 2021'

General Information

Perennial reeds, rhizomatous. Culms tall, erect, leafy, hollow. Leaf blades all cauline, broadly linear, base rounded, deciduous; ligule membranous with ciliate margin. Inflorescence a large, plumose, copiously branched panicle with numerous, crowded, silky-hairy spikelets. Spikelets laterally compressed, with several loosely arranged florets, lowest floret masculine or empty, resembling glumes but longer, persistent, succeeding florets bisexual, rachilla disarticulating between bisexual florets; glumes shorter than lemmas, unequal, papery, 3–5-veined; floret callus linear, silky-plumose with long spreading hairs; lemmas of bisexual florets very narrow, hyaline, 1–3-veined, glabrous, entire, long caudate; palea short, hyaline. Stamens 2 or 3.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    70. Phragmites Adans.

    Por R.W. Pohl.

    Perennes rizomatosas, coloniales. Rizomas 1-2 cm de ancho, abundantes, longitudinalmente estriados, fistulosos. Tallos altos, fistulosos, robustos. Hojas caulinares; vainas generalmente traslapadas; lígula una membrana ciliada; láminas anchamente lineares, aplanadas. Inflorescencia una panícula grande, terminal, solitaria, plumosa. Espiguillas con el flósculo más inferior estaminado o estéril y 3-9 flósculos bisexuales, el terminal estéril y reducido; desarticulación arriba del primer flósculo y en la base del entrenudo de la raquilla debajo de cada flósculo subsiguiene; glumas desiguales, más cortas que los flósculos, lanceoladas, carinadas, agudas, la inferior 3-nervia, la superior 5-nervia, un entrenudo evidente entre las glumas; entrenudos de las raquillas, excepto el más bajo, cubiertos con numerosos tricomas largos, sedosos; flósculo estaminado más bajo persistente, su lema 5-nervia; flósculos bisexuales con las lemas delgadas, 3-nervias, acuminadas, glabras; páleas mucho más cortas que las lemas, 2-carinadas; flósculos más superiores más cortos que los inferiores; lodículas 2; estambres 3; ovario glabro; estilos 2. Fruto una cariopsis; hilo cortamento oblongo. 4 spp. Ampliamente distribuido en las zonas templadas y cálidas del mundo.

    La única especie en Mesoamérica es Phragmites australis.

    Bibliografía: Clayton, W.D. Taxon 17: 168-169 (1968). Conert, H.J. Syst. Anat. Arundineae 36-63 (1961). Voss, E.G. Michigan Bot. 11: 26-37 (1972).

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
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    PHRAGMITES Adans.

    Por Richard W. Pohl

    Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 324. 1841; Arundo australis Cav.; A. phragmites L.; P. communis Trin.

    Perennes rizomatosas, coloniales. Rizomas 1–2 cm de ancho, abundantes, longitudinalmente estriados, fistulosos; tallos altos, 2–8 m de largo y 1–2 cm de ancho, fistulosos, robustos, sin ramificar excepto cuando lesionados; plantas hermafroditas o polígamas. Hojas caulinares; vainas generalmente traslapadas, glabras excepto por los tricomas auriculares; lígula una membrana ciliada; láminas anchamente lineares, 30–50 cm de largo y 1.5–2.5 cm de ancho, numerosas, glabras. Inflorescencia una panícula grande, terminal, solitaria, hasta 45 cm de largo, más bien densa, piramidal; espiguillas cuneiformes, 11–15 mm de largo, numerosas, con el flósculo más inferior estaminado o estéril y 3–9 flósculos bisexuales, el terminal estéril y reducido; desarticulación arriba del primer flósculo y en la base del entrenudo de la raquilla debajo de cada flósculo subsiguiente; glumas desiguales, más cortas que los flósculos, lanceoladas, carinadas, agudas, la inferior 3.8–5.2 mm de largo, 3-nervia, la superior 5.5–6.5 mm de largo, 5-nervia, un entrenudo evidente entre las glumas; entrenudos de las raquillas, excepto el más bajo, cubiertos con numerosos tricomas largos, sedosos; flósculo estaminado más bajo persistente, su lema 5-nervia; flósculos bisexuales con las lemas delgadas, 3-nervias, acuminadas, glabras; lemas 3–5, las más inferiores 9–10 mm de largo; páleas mucho más cortas que las lemas, 2–3.5 mm de largo, 2-carinadas; flósculos más superiores más cortos que los inferiores; lodículas 2; estambres 3; ovario glabro, estilos 2. Cariopsis; hilo cortamente oblongo.

    Común, estuarios marinos, costas de lagos, zona pacífica; 0–160 m; fl y fr ene–ago; Hahn 450, Sandino 2262; regiones templadas del mundo, poco frecuente en los trópicos. Numerosas plantas mesoamericanas de esta especie raramente florecen, o producen sólo espiguillas estériles o rudimentarias. Género con 4 especies, ampliamente distribuido en las zonas templadas y cálidas del mundo.

    H.J. Conert. Phragmites Adans. In: Die Systematik und Anatomie der Arundineae. 36–63. 1961; W.D. Clayton. The correct name of the common reed. Taxon 17: 168–169. 1968; E.G. Voss. Additional nomenclatural and other notes on Michigan monocots and gymnosperms. Michigan Bot. 11: 26–37. 1972.

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    Spikelets several-flowered, the rachilla densely covered with long fine silky hairs, disarticulating above the glumes and at the base of each segment between the florets, the first floret staminate or neuter, the others perfect; glumes unequal, narrow, acute, the first 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemmas narrow, long- acuminate, each one successively smaller, the summits of all of them thus about equal; palea of staminate or neuter floret one-fourth as long as the lemma, that of the first fertile floret one-half as long as the lemma.

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    "Perennial 5–12 dm, thickened at the nodes, the lower internodes very short, the lowest node often disarticulating; sheaths pilose at the throat; blades 2–4 dm × 3–6 mm; infl narrow, purplish, 1–3 dm, the ascending branches fascicled; glumes lanceolate, mostly 1-veined, the first 2.1–2.6 mm, the second 2.4–3 mm; lemmas glabrous, acute or acutish, 3.4–4.5 mm; rachilla-joints 1.3–2 mm, glabrous or hairy, usually short-pilose at the top; 2n=36. Native of Europe, intr. in fields, meadows, and roadsides from Me. to Pa., w. to Ont. and Wis."

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    "Perennial 5–12 dm, thickened at the nodes, the lower internodes very short, the lowest node often disarticulating; sheaths pilose at the throat; blades 2–4 dm × 3–6 mm; infl narrow, purplish, 1–3 dm, the ascending branches fascicled; glumes lanceolate, mostly 1-veined, the first 2.1–2.6 mm, the second 2.4–3 mm; lemmas glabrous, acute or acutish, 3.4–4.5 mm; rachilla-joints 1.3–2 mm, glabrous or hairy, usually short-pilose at the top; 2n=36. Native of Europe, intr. in fields, meadows, and roadsides from Me. to Pa., w. to Ont. and Wis."

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    Morphology

    Paleas much shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, oblong, hyaline.

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    Lodicules 2, glabrous.

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    Lemmas heteromorphous, dorsally rounded, always glabrous, membranous; the inferior much longer than the inferior glume, usually persistent, 3 (sometimes 5-7-) nerved, linear-lanceolate, lanceolate-oblong or oblong, rather acute; the following (fertile), caducous, 3-1-nerved, linear lanceolate, with the apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, thinly membranous; callus slender, straight or slightly curved, obtuse, densely bearded with long soft silky hairs.

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    Inflorescence a dense or loose many-flowered panicle.

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    Ligule a short membrane, densely ciliate along the apex.

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    Culms rather tall, robust, sheathed.

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    Stout aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials with creeping much-branched rhizomes.

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    Caryopsis oblong in outline, semiterete, loosely enclosed between the lemma and palea; hilum basal, oblong, small; embryo about 1/2 as long as the caryopsis.

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    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.

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    Stamens 3 (2 in the inferior floret if present).

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    Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, 3-11-flowered, laterally compressed, muticous, gaping at maturity; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; inferior floret sterile or male, the following bisexual but the uppermost usually reduced.

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    Glumes 3-5-nerved, sometimes with cross-veins, subequal to unequal, persistent, membranous, lanceolate, obovate to oblong, dorsally rounded, apex acute, subacute or sometimes obliquely truncate.

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    Spikelets 3–11-flowered, the lowest floret ♂ or barren, the following hermaphrodite, the uppermost ± reduced; rhachilla bearded above with long silky hairs; glumes 3–5-nerved; lemmas narrow, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, glabrous; lowest lemma much longer than the glumes, 3–7-nerved, ± persistent; fertile lemmas acuminate, 1–3-nerved; lodicules 2; stamens 3, or 2 in the lowest floret.

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    Panicles large, dense, profusely branched, silkily hairy

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    Leaf-blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, flat, deciduous

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    Aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials, with usually tall culms

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     Information From

    New York Botanical Garden
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    • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
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    Flora Mesoamericana
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    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
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    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
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    Poaceae
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    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
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