Pilea Lindl.
  • Coll. Bot. sub t. 4. 1821. (1 Apr 1821)
  • [Latin pileus, felt cap, because of the calyx covering the achene]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Pilea Lindl. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029665. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs, shrubs, or subshrubs , annual or perennial, glabrous. Stems simple or branched, erect, ascending, or repent. Leaves opposite; stipules present. Leaf blades paired, equal or unequal, ovate, margins dentate or entire; cystoliths linear, ± conspicuous. Inflorescences axillary, compact to lax cymes. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate flowers in same cyme; bracts deltate to linear. Staminate flowers: tepals 4; stamens 4; pistillode conic. Pistillate flowers: tepals 3, equal or sometimes 1 tepal enlarged and hoodlike; staminodes 3, opposite tepals, under tension and ejecting mature achene; style and tufted stigma deciduous. Achenes sessile, laterally compressed, ovoid to teardrop-shaped, free from perianth at maturity, partly covered by hoodlike tepal. x = 12, 13.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    12. Pilea Lindl., nom. cons.

    Adicea Raf. ex Britton et A. Br., Dubrueilia Gaudich.

    Por A.K. Monro.

    Hierbas, rara vez arbustos, en ocasiones epifíticas, perennes, rara vez anuales; tallos sin tricomas urticantes, no liberando látex acuoso cuando se cortan. Hojas opuestas, con frecuencia desiguales en cada nudo, los márgenes dentados o enteros; cistolitos fusiformes, con frecuencia de apariencia ramificada; estípulas en las axilas de las hojas, persistentes, rara vez caducas. Inflorescencias unisexuales, rara vez bisexuales, en panículas o cimas; pedicelos envueltos por bractéolas inconspicuas. Flores estaminadas 4-meras o rara vez 2-meras o 3-meras; tépalos iguales, cada uno con un apéndice subapical. Flores pistiladas con los tépalos 3, desiguales o más rara vez iguales, el tépalo adaxial con frecuencia con un apéndice subapical. Aquenios ligera a marcadamente comprimido-ovoides a subelipsoidales, las partes persistentes del perianto formando una estructura con forma de fruto. Aprox. 715 spp. Cosmopolita, excepto por Australia y Nueva Zelanda.

    Varias especies son cultivadas como ornamentales. En Mesoamérica, Pilea depressa (Sw.) Blume es en ocasiones cultivada como planta de interiores en El Salvador y Panamá. Las especies sudamericanas P. bassleriana Killip y P. rhombifolia Killip, son registros erróneos o no documentados en Panamá (D’Arcy, 1987).

    Bibliografía: Adams, C.D. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 8: 99-110 (1970). Monro, A.K. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London, Bot. 31: 9-25 (2001). Weddell, H.A. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9: 172-277 (1856-1857 [1856]).

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • 1
    • ]. 

    PILEA Lindl.

    Hierbas, raramente subarbustos, anuales o perennes, erectas a rastreras o trepadoras, ocasionalmente epífitas, sin tricomas urticantes; plantas monoicas o dioicas. Hojas opuestas, iguales o desiguales, enteras o más frecuentemente serradas, cistolitos generalmente lineares o fusiformes, menos frecuentemente punctiformes o ramificados, la mayoría 3-nervias, a veces 3-plinervias o pinnatinervias; estípulas intrapeciolares, connadas. Inflorescencias axilares, básicamente cimosas, variando desde paniculadas abiertas a capitadas o espigadas; flores masculinas con (3) 4 segmentos, perianto unido al menos en la base, frecuentemente con apéndices verticales prolongados en el dorso de los segmentos; flores femeninas con perianto 3-partido, 1 segmento generalmente mucho más grande y algo cuculado, estigma sésil y penicilado. Aquenio generalmente envuelto en la base por el perianto persistente, ovado, orbicular o elíptico, lateralmente aplanado, ápice a veces curvado, estigma generalmente deciduo.

    Género con al menos 600 especies, pantropical con unas pocas especies en las regiones templadas de ambos hemisferios, ausente en Europa, Australia y Nueva Zelandia; 12 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y 2 se tratan como esperadas, número muy inferior al de otros países centroamericanos. Muchas especies parecen estar restringidas a regiones altas y por tanto no se esperan encontrar en Nicaragua. Sin embargo, las especies de Pilea no son por lo general plantas muy vistosas y es probable que pasen desapercibidas. P. pallida Killip, una especie dioica conocida del norte de Costa Rica descendiendo hasta 700 m, podría encontrarse en Nicaragua; tiene hojas iguales en el mismo nudo, largas, angostas, serradas, de color verde-gris al secarse, flores masculinas en fascículos axilares grandes y apretados y flores femeninas en cimas axilares menos ramificadas con frutos menos de 1 mm de largo. P. cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaumin, se cultiva en Nicaragua como una planta de jardín, es una hierba con estípulas oblongas de 1 cm de largo, deciduas, hojas similares en cada nudo, marcadas con bandas plateadas discontinuas y con dientes muy separados en los márgenes, las flores masculinas están amontonadas en un capítulo grande de 1 cm de ancho sobre un pedúnculo de 4.5–6 cm de largo. P. nummulariifolia (Sw.) Wedd. con hojas suborbiculares muy pequeñas de 3–15 mm de largo, pubescentes, estípulas persistentes, reptante y enraizando en los nudos, es una planta cultivada que escapa y naturaliza en Honduras y Costa Rica y se podría encontrar en Nicaragua.

    E. Killip. New species of Pilea from the Andes. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 26: 367–394. 1936; E. Killip. The Andean species of Pilea. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 26: 475–530. 1939; A.K. Monro. Synopsis of Mesoamerican Pilea (Urticaceae), including eighteen typifications and a key to the species. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London (Bot.) 31: 9–25. 2001.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial, monoecious or dioecious herbs, sometimes suffrutescent, often succulent, without stinging hairs; stipules intra-axillary, deciduous or per- sistent; leaves opposite, usually petiolate, toothed or entire, those of a pair equal or markedly unequal, similar in shape or very dissimilar; flowers in unisexual or androgynous clusters, these solitary or forming cymes or panicles; staminate flowers 4 (rarely 2 or 3 ) -parted, the pistillate normally 3-parted, the middle segment usually larger than the lateral ones; stigma sessile, penicillate; achenes compressed, orbicular or ovate.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 15
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    "Monoecious or dioecious; cal of the male fls deeply 4-parted; stamens 4; cal of the female fls deeply 3-parted, the segments often unequal or gibbous or hooded; staminodes minute, scale-like; stigma sessile; fr a compressed, thin- walled achene, loosely subtended by the persistent cal; herbs with opposite lvs, inconspicuous, connate stipules, and axillary cymes of small, greenish fls, the numerous cystoliths appearing as minute, whitish lines on the surface of the lf in herbarium-specimens blades with scattered, minute stinging hairs. 200, mainly trop."

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 16
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    Herbs or subshrubs, rarely shrubs, without stinging hairs. Stems often succulent. Leaves usually opposite, equal or unequal in pairs, rarely alternate; petiolate, stipules deciduous or persistent, 2 at each node, axillary or rarely interpetiolar [or intrapetiolar], usually membranous, sometimes herbaceous, or papery [or fleshy]; leaf blade 3-veined or rarely pinnately veined, base symmetric or asymmetric, margin serrate, crenate, dentate, or entire; cystoliths usually linear. Inflorescences solitary or in pairs, axillary, glomerules usually forming loose, dichotomous cymes or cymose panicles, sometimes spikes or in dense, globose capitula of unisexual or polygamous flowers (plants monoecious or dioecious); bracts small. Male flowers: perianth lobes (2-)4 or 5, valvate or imbricate, often corniculate near apex; stamens (2-)4 or 5; filaments inflexed in bud; rudimentary ovary small to inconspicuous. Female flowers: perianth lobes (2 or)3(-5), subequal or strongly unequal, in fruit enlarged, when 3-lobed, the abaxial one usually gibbous or boat-shaped, much longer and often with a corniculate appendix near apex; staminodes opposite to segments, scale-like, usually oblong, minute or inconspicuous, in fruit enlarged. Ovary straight, often with oblique apex; stigma sessile, shortly penicillate; ovule orthotropous. Achene usually ovoid, usually compressed or slightly compressed, often oblique, without crested appendix at apex, partly enclosed by persistent perianth. Seeds with scarcely any endosperm; cotyledons broad. x = 8, 12, 13, 15, 18.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Morphology

      Embryo with large cotyledons.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      Achene compressed, ovate or elliptic; endosperm scarce

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      Female flowers usually 3-merous, of which the tepals ± fused at base, the middle perianth-segment is usually the largest and ± appendiculate at apex, the lateral ones much smaller; a scale, representing a staminode, present inside each perianth-segment, hyaline, at first inflexed, reflexed at maturity and forcibly ejecting the achene; ovary erect, with apical sessile penicillate stigma

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      Male flowers usually 4-merous, rarely (2–)3-merous, often with tepals fused at base, mostly appendiculate (with a small, horn-like appendage at apex or subapical); rudimentary pistillode poorly developed or completely absent

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      Male inflorescences usually develop before or below the ♀

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      Inflorescences axillary or apparently terminal, unisexual or bisexual, pedunculate or sessile, bracted at least when young, in dichotomous cymes or in dense capitular clusters, either single or in branched paniculate inflorescences

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Leaves opposite, petiolate, the two of a pair sometimes of unequal size; stipules intrapetiolar, fused completely to the apex, caducous or persistent; lamina entire, serrate or dentate, triplinerved; cystoliths linear, rarely punctiform

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious or rarely dioecious by abortion, sometimes with somewhat lignified basal parts or suffrutescent, mostly with juicy, translucent and turgescent stems, which may occasionally have scattered glandular cells in epidermis

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious or dioecious by abortion.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Stems juicy, translucent and turgescent; stinging hairs absent.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Leaves opposite, petiolate or subsessile, each of a pair unequal in size, triplinerved, usually with serrate margins.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Cystoliths linear.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Stipules intrapetiolar, almost completely fused.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Embryo with large cotyledons.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Male flowers (3)4(5)-merous, tepals corniculate with a dorsal horn-like appendage; stamens as many as the tepals; ovary rudimentary.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Flowers in unisexual or bisexual cymes or panicles.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Achene ovoid, ± smooth, compressed.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Female flowers with 3 tepals, one considerably larger than the other two, usually cuculate or with a dorsal horn-like appendage. Three scale-like staminodes present, inflexed, but ultimately reflexing and thus ejecting the achene. Ovary symmetrical, erect, with a sessile, penicillate stigma.

    • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      Herbes'annuelles ou vivaces, monoïques ou dioïques, souvent délicates et ± charnues.'Feuilles'pétiolées, opposées, celles d'une paire souvent inégales, en général trinerves, souvent dentées, à cystolithes allongés; stipules intrapétiolaires ± soudées.'Inflorescences'axillaires, souvent condensées en capitules.'Fleurs ♂ 3-4-mères, isostémones, les segments du périgone appendiculés sous le sommet; périgone ♀ à 3 segments dont le médian est en général plus grand et appendiculé sous le sommet, les latéraux souvent très réduits et alors sans appendices; staminodes très petits dans la fleur et recourbés sous l'ovaire mais agrandis et se détendant brusquement à la maturité de l'akène dont le pédicelle est allongé et qui est projeté; stigmate en pinceau.\n\t\t\t\tPrès de 200 espèces la plupart intertropicales, en stations humides et ombragées; 11 au Congo belge : toutes, sauf une douteuse pour le Kasai, dans les forêts de montagne de l'Est.

    • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 18
      • ]. 

      Habit

      herb

    • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 15
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCES
      Chen, C. J. 1982. A monograph of Pilea (Urticaceae) in China. Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 2: 1-132. Fernald, M. L. 1936. Pilea in eastern North America. Contr. Gray Herb. 113: 169-170. Hermann, F. J. 1940. The geographic distribution of Pilea fontana. Torreya 40: 118-120.

    • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 12
      • ]. 

      Included Species

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      [Latin pileus, felt cap, because of the calyx covering the achene]

       Information From

      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • A Missouri Botanical Garden
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • E Flora of North America Association
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • I Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • J
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      Urticaceae
      • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).