Pinus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1000. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Pine [Latin pinus, name for pine]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Pinus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029794. Accessed on: 11 Jul 2020'

General Information

Trees or rarely shrubs, evergreen, with regularly whorled branches; branchlets strongly dimorphic: long branchlets bearing scalelike leaves and spreading leaf bundles; short branchlets bearing leaves in bundles of 2-5(-7); winter buds large, with numerous scales. Leaves needlelike, slender or stout, straight or twisted, triangular, flabellate-triangular, or semiorbicular in cross section, stomatal lines several, on 1, 2, or all surfaces, vascular bundles 1 or 2, resin canals 2-10 or more, marginal or median, rarely internal, base enclosed by persistent or deciduous, membranous sheath. Pollen cones usually borne in spikelike clusters at base of 1st-year branchlets, sessile, cylindric or ovoid; pollen 2-saccate. Seed cones pedunculate or subsessile, erect or pendulous, cylindric or ovoid, maturing in 2nd or 3rd year. Seed scales spirally arranged, woody, exposed apex thickened and ridged (the apophysis), with a prominent protuberance (umbo), usually terminating in a spine or prickle, persistent. Bracts minute. Seeds variable in color, shape, and size, winged or not; wing adnate or articulated to seed. Cotyledons 3-18. Germination epigeal. 2n = 24*.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    PINUS L.

    Arboles grandes (en Nicaragua), resinosos. Follaje adulto marcadamente dimorfo, formado de fascículos de hojas angostas, aciculares, fotosintéticas, que representan brotes enanos deciduos, y de hojas escamosas cafés subyacentes a las primeras. Conos masculinos (microsporangios) pocos a muchos, agrupados alrededor de los tallos jóvenes, polen con 2 vejigas de aire; conos femeninos maduros leñosos con brácteas fusionadas, porción expuesta de la escama (apófisis) engrosada, generalmente formando un umbón armado y prominente. Semillas sostenidas entre un ala biunguiculada bien desarrollada, cotiledones 4–20.

    Género con ca 105 especies del hemisferio norte, sólo una especie se extiende al sur de la línea ecuatorial. Casi todas se distribuyen en las tierras altas; 4 especies ocurren naturalmente en Nicaragua y 2 especies, P. ayacahuite C. Ehrenb. ex Schltdl. y P. pseudostrobus Lindl. var. pseudostrobus, que se encuentran en las zonas altas de las montañas de Honduras podrían eventualmente encontrarse en Nicaragua. Todas las especies son importantes fuentes de madera y resina en Nicaragua. El género es un recurso natural importante y las semillas son muy apreciadas para los proyectos de reforestación en los trópicos. "Pino", "Ocote".

    N.T. Mirov. The Genus Pinus. 1967; E.L. Little, Jr. y W.B. Critchfield. Subdivisions of the genus Pinus (Pines). Misc. Publ., U.S.D.A. 1133: i–iv, 1–51. 1969; A.F.A. Lamb. Pinus caribaea. 1. Fast Growing Timber Trees of the Lowland Tropics 6: 1–254. 1973; B.T. Styles y C.E. Hughes. Studies of variation in Central American Pines III. Notes on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the pines and related gymnosperms in Honduras and adjacent Latin American republics. Brenesia 21: 269–291. 1983; A. Farjon y B.T. Styles. Pinus (Pinaceae). Fl. Neotrop. 75: 1–291. 1997.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Árboles grandes (en CR), monoicos. Tallo ramificado, ramas, brotes vegetativos, fascículos foliares y es-tróbilos con hojas escamosas (catafilos) subyacentes. Hojas espiraladas, fasciculadas (los fascículos con vainasbasales), como agujas, con los márgenes serrulados (CR). Estróbilos (conos) compactos, axilares, los mas-culinos y los femeninos en ramas separadas; conos masculinos que maduran y se desprenden anualmente, soli-tarios o en racimos, cilíndricos, con esporofilos que se traslapan, cada esporofilo con 2 microsporangios; conosfemeninos que maduran y se desprenden en 1–3 temporadas o largo-persistentes, solitarios o en racimos, conescamas que se traslapan, cada escama subyacente a 2 megasporangios, las escamas maduras leñosas y con unapunta apicalmente engrosada (umbo). Semillas aladas, las alas articuladas (CR).

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs aromatic, evergreen; crown usually conic when young, often rounded or flat-topped with age. Bark of older stems variously furrowed and plated, plates and/or ridges layered or scaly. Branches usually in pseudowhorls; shoots dimorphic with long shoots and short shoots; short shoots borne in close spirals from axils of scaly bracts and bearing fascicles of leaves (needles). Buds ovoid to cylindric, apex pointed (blunt), usually resinous. Leaves dimorphic, spirally arranged; foliage leaves (needles) (1--)2--5(--6) per fascicle, persisting 2--12 or more years, terete or ± 2--3-angled and rounded on abaxial surface, sessile, sheathed at base by 12--15 overlapping scale leaves, these (at least firmer basal ones) persisting for life of fascicle or shed after first season; resin canals 2 or more. Pollen cones in dense, spikelike cluster around base of current year's growth, mostly ovoid to cylindric-conic, tan to yellow, red, blue, or lavender. Seed cones maturing in 2(--3) years, shed early or variously persistent, pendent to ± erect, at maturity conic or cylindric, sessile or stalked, shedding seed soon after maturity or variously serotinous (not opening upon maturity but much later); scales persistent, woody or pliable, surface of exposed apical portion of each scale (apophysis) thickened, with umbo (exposed scale surface of young cone) represented by a scar (sometimes apiculate) or extended into a hook, spur, claw, or prickle; bracts included. Seeds winged or wingless; cotyledons (3--)6--10(--18). x =12.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    "Male cones in fascicles at the base of the current year’s growth; female cones woody, maturing at the end of the second or third season and often long-persistent; apophysis (exposed portion of the mature cone-scale) marked by a transverse line or ridge interrupted in the center by a linear to round or quadrate, often elevated or spine-bearing umbo, or the umbo sometimes terminal; evergreen trees or shrubs with dimorphic branches and lvs, the long branches (except in seedlings) bearing only scale-lvs, from the axils of which early appear very short dwarf branches, each bearing a cluster of (1)2–5 needle-like lvs, the cluster surrounded at the base by a bundle- sheath of 1 or more membranous scale-lvs; dwarf branches eventually (after 2–several years) deciduous with the lvs; evergreen trees or shrubs; 2n=24. Nearly 100, N. Hemisphere."

  • Provided by: [D].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Árboles

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Bailey, D.K. 1970. Phytogeography and taxonomy of Pinus subsection Balfourianae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 210--249. Bailey, D.K. 1987. A study of Pinus subsection Cembroides I: The single-needle pinyons of the Californias and the Great Basin. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 44: 275--310. Bailey, D.K. and F.G. Hawksworth. 1979. Pinyons of the Chihuahuan Desert region. Phytologia 44: 129--133. Critchfield, W.B. and E.L. Little Jr. 1966. Geographic Distribution of the Pines of the World. Washington. [U.S.D.A., Misc. Publ. 991.] Duffield, J.W. 1952. Relationships and species hybridization in the genus Pinus. Silvae Genet. 1: 93--97. Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. Washington. [Agric. Handb. 271.] Kurz,H. and R.K. Godfrey. 1962. Trees of Northern Florida. Gainesville. Little, E.L. Jr. and W.B. Critchfield. 1969. Subdivisions of the genus Pinus (pines). Washington. [U.S.D.A., Misc. Publ. 1144.] Mirov, N.T. 1967. The Genus Pinus. New York. Peattie, D.C. 1953. A Natural History of Western Trees. Boston. Perry, J.P.Jr. 1991. The Pines of Mexico and Central America. Portland. Preston, R.J. 1976. North American Trees (Exclusive of Mexico and Tropical United States), ed. 3. Ames. Price, R.A. 1989. The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 247--305. Sargent, C.S. 1922. Manual of the Trees of North America (Exclusive of Mexico), ed. 2. Boston and New York. [Facsimile edition in 2 vols. 1961, reprinted 1965, New York.] Shaw, G.R. 1914. The Genus Pinus. Cambridge, Mass. [Publ. Arnold Arbor. 5.] Sudworth, G.B. 1908. Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope. Washington. Sudworth, G.B. 1917. The Pine Trees of the Rocky Mountain Region. Washington. [U.S.D.A. Bull. 460.]

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Pine [Latin pinus, name for pine]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • D Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Pinaceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).