Piper L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 28. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Piper L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000029808. Accessed on: 29 Nov 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or climbers, rarely herbs or small trees, aromatic. Stems thickened at nodes; outer vascular bundles in a ring, inner bundles scattered in 1 or 2 series. Prophylls present, often ± connate to petiole, caducous, forming a prominent, ringlike stipular scar at each node; main lateral veins all basal or partly pinnate. Flowers mostly unisexual, dioecious, less often monoecious or bisexual, sessile. Inflorescences leaf-opposed or rarely terminal spikes, rarely spikes grouped in an apparently axillary umbel; bracts small, sometimes adnate to rachis, often peltate. Stamens 2-6, usually on rachis, rarely at base of ovary; anthers 2-loculed, 2-4-lobed. Ovary distinct or sometimes immersed in rachis; ovule 1; stigmas (2 or)3-5. Fruit a drupe, sessile or stalked, often red or yellow, obovoid, ovoid, globose, or obovoid to cuneate-obovoid and laterally compressed, rarely ellipsoid, usually glabrous.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Small trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or rarely herbs , erect or reclining, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, pubescent. Leaf blade conspicuously pinnately veined, lateral veins ascending-arching, connected by fainter, ladderlike, tertiary veins. Spikes opposite leaves, ascending-arching, densely flowered, distally drooping. Flowers sessile, borne on surface of rachis; floral bracts fringed with whitish hairs; stamens 2[-6]; stigmas [2-]3[-4]. Fruits sessile, oblong (inversely pyramidal-3-angled in P. auritum ); beak minute.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    PIPER L.

    Arbustos o sufrútices terrestres, en ocasiones hemiepífitos, lianescentes o trepadores, bejucos o raras veces árboles pequeños; tallos solitarios o con frecuencia plantas cespitosas, vástagos a menudo heterofilos, los ejes monopódicos con hojas simétricas, basalmente equiláteras, a menudo de mayor tamaño que aquellas en los ejes simpódicos, éstas asimétricas y basalmente inequiláteras, nudos prominentes. Profilos a menudo prominentes y persistentes en ejes simpódicos, discretos y caducos tempranamente en ejes monopódicos. Hojas alternas, enteras pero a menudo lobuladas basalmente, palmatinervias o pinnatinervias, con frecuencia la morfología foliar puede variar drásticamente en una misma planta y las hojas de los tallos monopódicos tienden a ser simétricas y basalmente equiláteras mientras que las hojas de los tallos simpódicos (florígenos) tienden a ser asimétricas y basalmente inequiláteras; pecíolos cortos a largos, con márgenes a menudo muy desarrollados y estipulares en apariencia. Inflorescencias terminales, opuestas y solitarias, raramente (por reducción del número de articulaciones o partes de la articulación en ejes simpódicos) axilares, y entonces (en nuestro material) en grupos de espigas sobre un eje común ramificado simulando umbelas o panículas, raquis de la espiga a menudo fimbriado, las flores con frecuencia formando bandas alrededor de la espiga, brácteas florales, cuculadas o triangulares distalmente en forma de U o V, glabras, a veces marginalmente fimbriadas, flores sésiles o pediceladas; estambres 2–4 (–8), los filamentos a menudo persistentes en el fruto, anteras ditecas, con dehiscencia vertical, oblicua u horizontal; pistilo 3–4-carpelar con igual número de estigmas, sésiles o sobre un estilo prominente. Fruto al madurar ligeramente distorsionado por compresión de los frutos adyacentes, basalmente fijado o parcialmente inmerso en el raquis.

    El género Piper contiene aproximadamente unas 1500 especies, con cerca de 1000 en América tropical; 59 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua y 4 adicionales se esperan encontrar. Las especies de este género son a menudo elementos conspicuos del sotobosque, alcanzando su mayor diversidad en bosques húmedos premontanos y de tierras bajas en las regiones del Chocó de Colombia y piedemonte oriental de la Amazonia peruana. Piper es utilizado localmente como antídoto contra mordeduras de serpientes y así mismo como remedio eficaz en el tratamiento de cálculos renales y afecciones bronquiales. Muchas especies se conocen con el nombre de "Cordoncillo".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, occasionally subherbaceous, rarely scandent, often nodose; leaves alternate, simple, with rare exceptions entire, a few species peltate, frequently with one side attached to the petiole at the base several mm. lower than the other, smooth to rugose or bullate above and lacunose beneath, glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy, often scabrous, frequently sparsely to densely glandular-dotted, palmately nerved or more commonly pinnately nerved from the lower half or two-thirds, or throughout, usually somewhat venulose with finer cross-connecting and anasta- mosing nervules; petiole of various lengths, rarely lacking, commonly more or less vaginate-grooved at least at the base and often to the blade, the margins of the groove wing-margined, the wing very narrow or apparently lacking, or broad and conspicuous; spikes leaf-opposed, cylindrical or rarely globose or subglobose, 1-10 mm. or more thick and up to 50 cm. or more long; peduncle from less than 5 mm. up to several centimeters long; rachis commonly somewhat ridged between the flowers, the ridges low and smooth or papillate to fimbriate; flowers sessile and perfect (American species) or imperfect (Old World species) ; usually densely congested, in the axis of variously shaped bracts, the bracts sometimes glabrous but more commonly pilose or fimbriate; stamens 2-5; ovary 1, glabrous or sometimes papillate or pubescent; stigmas 2-4, rounded to filiform, sessile or on a short and thick to elongated and slender style; fruit variously shaped, one-seeded, drupe-like, with a thin pericarp and somewhat hardened endocarp.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves alternate, petiolate, symmetrical or asymmetrical, occasionally peltate, sometimes lobed at the base, membranous to coriaceous; venation palmate or pinnate; petiole sometimes sheathing, the adnate stipule-like organs soon falling

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Herbs, shrubs, slender trees, climbers or scramblers, only rarely epiphytic, if with unisexual flowers (usually in the Old World) then monoecious or dioecious; stemsthickened at the nodes, often hollow, sometimes producing adventitious roots, glabrous or with indumentum of simple or multicellular hairs

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fruits globose, obpyramidal, cylindrical or ovoid to flask-shaped, dry or fleshy, glabrous to densely puberulous, papillose-pubescent or hispidulous, sometimes glandular, often pedicellate.

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Ovary conoid, subglobose, conic, obovoid or subcylindrical; styles long, short or absent; stigmas 2–4

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stamens 2–6; anthers basifixed with thecae usually distinct

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite (mostly New World) or unisexual, sessile or pedicellate, crowded to widely placed on an often fleshy rhachis, each with a round triangular semilunate or calceiform bract

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences leaf-opposed or apparently axillary, pedunculate, solitary or in one small but very widespread group several on short leafless shoots

  • Provided by: [I].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, sometimes asymmetrical at the base, membranous or coriaceous.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stipules adnate to the petiole, soon caducous.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Erect, scandent or climbing shrubs, or sometimes lianes.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stems often hollow, jointed at the nodes.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± ovoid to subglobose; stigmas 2–4(5), erect or recurved, sessile or on a short style.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Fruit a ± globose 1-seeded drupe, sessile, rarely pedunculate.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Seed sub-globose; testa thin; endosperm and perisperm hard.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences axillary or leaf-opposed, pedunculate, with flowers in dense cylindrical spikes, rarely racemose.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual; plants monoecious or dioecious.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stamens 2–4(6) in the Flora Zambesiaca area; filaments short; anthers basifixed with the thecae usually distinct.

  • Provided by: [J].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Arbustes'ou lianes à feuilles toujours alternes.'Fleurs'☿ ou ♂♀, en épis dressés; étamines 1-6 (en général 2-3) à anthères caduques; ovaire sessile; stigmates 2-3 (6).'Baies globuleuses, sessiles ou pédonculées.\n\t\t\t\tGenre comprenant ± 650 espèces dont beaucoup sont riches en alcaloïdes (pipérine, cubébine, chavicine, etc.) accompagnés d'huiles essentielles (phellandrène, cadinène, etc.) et sont utilisées comme condiment ( P. nigrum'L. cultivé couramment en Indo-Malaisie), comme excitant ( P. betle'L.) et comme ingrédient dans la composition de médicaments toniques, stomachiques, vermifuges, vulnéraires et antigonorrhéiques.'Piper guineense fournit le pipéronal employé en parfumerie.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Shrubs trees

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • G http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Piperaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • I
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • J
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).