Quercus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 994. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Oak, chêne [Classical Latin for the English oak, Quercus robur, from some central European language]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Quercus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000032377. Accessed on: 25 Oct 2021'

General Information

Trees or sometimes shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Trunk bark deeply splitting or exfoliating longitudinally. Winter buds ovoid-globose, ovoid-conical, or rarely ovoid-ellipsoid; scales few to many, imbricate. Leaves spirally arranged. Stipules extrapetiolar. Male inflorescence pendulous, solitary in leaf axils toward base of branchlets or in paniculate clusters on lateral or subterminal shoots; flower solitary and scattered on rachis; perianth calyciform, 4-7-lobed or more lobed; stamens 4-7 or fewer, filaments slender; staminodes small. Female inflorescences in leaf axils toward apex of branchlets, with few to many cupules; flowers solitary; perianth 5- or 6-lobed; staminodes sometimes present, small; ovary (2-or)3(or 4)-loculed; stigmas dilated or ligulate, lining inner faces of styles. Cupules solitary; bracts imbricate, scalelike, linear, or conical, adherent, prostrate, or reflexed. Nut 1 per cupule. Germination hypogeal.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Trees or shrubs , evergreen or winter-deciduous, sometimes rhizomatous. Terminal buds spheric to ovoid, terete or angled, all scales imbricate. Leaves: stipules deciduous and inconspicuous (except in Quercus sadleriana ). Leaf blade lobed or unlobed, thin or leathery, margins entire, toothed, or awned-toothed, secondary veins either unbranched, ± parallel, extending to margin, or branching and anastomosing before reaching margin. Inflorescences unisexual, in axils of leaves or bud scales, usually clustered at base of new growth; staminate inflorescences lax, spicate; pistillate inflorescences usually stiff, with terminal cupule and sometimes 1-several sessile, lateral cupules. Staminate flowers: sepals connate; stamens (2-)6(-12), surrounding tuft of silky hairs (apparently a reduced pistillode). Pistillate flower 1 per cupule; sepals connate; carpels and styles 3(-6). Fruits: maturation annual or biennial; cup variously shaped (saucer- to cup- or bowl- to goblet-shaped), without indication of valves, covering base of nut (rarely whole nut), scaly, scales imbricate or reduced to tubercles, not or weakly reflexed, never hooked; nut 1 per cup, round in cross section, not winged. x = 12.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Arboles (en Nicaragua) o arbustos con corteza gruesa y fisurada, tallos estriados o angulados, glabrescentes, yemas agrupadas hacia los ápices. Hojas generalmente espiraladas, deciduas (en Nicaragua), enteras a profundamente incisas, cicatriz peciolar diagonal, prominente; estípulas asociadas con las yemas, subuladas a liguladas, generalmente caducas. Inflorescencia axilar y surgiendo con las hojas nuevas; inflorescencia estaminada un racimo péndulo, con flores solitarias o en fascículos irregularmente espaciados, de 2–5 flores sobre un raquis delgado y pubescente de hasta 18 cm de largo, flores con 3–6 tépalos unidos basalmente (5–6-lobadas en Nicaragua), estambres 4–8 (–12) unidos a un receptáculo pubescente, prominente, y anular en la base del tubo de los tépalos, anteras 1–1.5 mm de largo, glabras en la mayoría de las especies, exertas; inflorescencia pistilada con 1–6 (–9) flores, en un raquis leñoso y rígido de hasta 12 cm de largo, generalmente patente o suberecto desde la axila de la hoja, flores con perianto 5–6-lobado, pistilo con 3 lóculos y estilos. Fruto anual o bianual (en Nicaragua, Q. xalapensis), envuelto parcial o totalmente por un involucro cupuliforme leñoso; cotiledones conspicuos y separados en la mayoría de las especies.

    Género ampliamente distribuido en el hemisferio norte, con 400–500 especies; 12 especies en Nicaragua. Los híbridos naturales son comunes y no están incluidos en la clave. La madera es excepcional para leña y también muy fuerte y útil en la construcción. Las hojas, la corteza y las flores tienen usos medicinales limitados. Se conocen como "Encino" o "Roble".

    W. Trelease. The American oaks. Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 1–255, 420 pl. 1924. C.H. Müller. The Central American species of Quercus. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Misc. Publ. 477: 1–216. 1942.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, petiolate, blades entire, toothed, or lobed, persistent or deciduous, stipules associated with the buds, ligulate, often caducous; flowers monoecious; staminate flowers in flaccid pendulous aments, the perianth about 5-lobed, stamens 5 to 10, free; pistillate flowers solitary or clustered, subsessile or peduncled, enclosed in an involucre of numerous flat scales, the peri- anth 6-lobed, ovary 3-carpellate, 1-celled, ovules 6 (5 abortive), styles 3, short; fruit a nut (acorn), 1-seeded, partly enveloped by an involucre (cup) of flat or basally thickened scales, maturing in 1 or 2 seasons.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Árboles (en CR), monoicos, los tallos lisos a conspicuamente lenticelados; estípulas presentes, densamente imbricadas, usualmente conspicuas, deciduas. Hojas simples, alternas (a veces densamente aglomeradas al final de los tallos), enteras a crenadas o espinoso-dentadas (en CR), persistentes (en CR), pecioladas o subsésiles. Infls. axilares (que emergen en los crecimientos nuevos), unisexuales, las masculinas racemosas, las femeninas de 1 fl. solitaria ó 2–varias fls. fasciculadas. Fls. unisexuales, actinomorfas, las pistiladas sostenidas por un involucro de numerosas escamas adpresas; miembros del perianto diferenciados en 1 solo verticilo; sépalos (3–)5 ó 6 (diminutos en las fls. pistiladas), basalmente connatos; pétalos ausentes; estambres (fls. estaminadas) (2–)4–12, los filamentos delgados; anteras basifijas, con dehiscencia longitudinal; estaminodios usualmente ausentes en las fls. pistiladas; pistilo (fls. pistiladas) 1, compuesto; ovario ínfero, (2)3-locular; óvulos 2 por lóculo; placentación apical-axilar; estilos (2)3. Frs. nuciformes, rodeados basal a totalmente por una copa involucral; semilla 1, sin endosperma.

  • Provided by: [D].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 7
    • ]. 

    "Staminate fls in slender, naked catkins, the bracts caducous or none, the cal divided to the base into 6(3–7) segments; stamens 3–12; pistillate fls solitary or in small spikes, each subtended by a bract and surrounded by an involucre of many scales; ovary 3-locular; nut subtended and partly enclosed by the accrescent involucre; trees or shrubs, the fls appearing before the lvs; 2n=24. 400+, cosmop.Our oaks fall into 2 subgenera: in Quercus, the white oaks (spp. 1–12), the fr matures at the end of the first season, the stigmas are sessile or nearly so, the abortive ovules lie at the base of the seed, and the lvs or their lobes are not bristle-tipped. In Erythrobalanus, the red and black oaks (spp. 13–28), the fr matures during the second year, the styles are elongate, the abortive ovules lie at the top of the seed, and in most spp. the lvs or their lobes are bristle-tipped.Most or all of the spp. within each subgenus can and frequently do hybridize, but natural intersubgeneric hybrids are unknown. The following names are believed to apply to hybrids as indicated:Q. ×asheana Little = Q. cinerea × laevisQ. ×atlantica Ashe = Q. cinerea × laurifoliaQ. ×beadlei Trel. = Q. alba × michauxiiQ. ×bebbiana C. K. Schneid. = Q. alba × macrocarpaQ. ×benderi Baen. = Q. coccinea × rubraQ. ×blufftonensis Trel. = Q. falcata × laevisQ. ×brittonii W. T. Davis = Q. ilicifolia × marilandicaQ. ×bushii Sarg. = Q. marilandica × velutinaQ. ×byarsii Sudw. = Q. macrocarpa × michauxiiQ. ×caduca Trel. = Q. cinerea × nigraQ. ×cocksii Sarg. = Q. laurifolia × velutinaQ. ×comptoniae Sarg. = Q. lyrata × virginianaQ. ×cravenensis Little = Q. cinerea × marilandica Q. ×deamii Trel. = Q. macrocarpa × muehlenbergii Q. ×demarei Ashe = Q. nigra × velutinaQ. ×dubia Ashe = Q. phellos × velutina or laevis Q. ×egglestonii Trel. = Q. imbricaria × shumardii Q. ×exacta Trel. = Q. imbricaria × palustrisQ. ×faxonii Trel. = Q. alba × prinoides Q. ×fernaldii Trel. = Q. ilicifolia × rubra Q. ×fernowii Trel. = Q. alba × stellataQ. ×filialis Little = Q. phellos × velutina"

  • Provided by: [H].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Trees shrubs

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 



    Hunt, D. M. 1989. A Systematic Review of Quercus Series Laurifoliae, Marilandicae and Nigrae. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Georgia. Muller, C. H. 1951. The oaks of Texas. Contr. Texas Res. Found., Bot. Stud. 1: 21-323. Muller, C. H. 1961. The live oaks of the series Virentes. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 65: 17-39. Nixon, K. C. 1993. Infrageneric classification of Quercus (Fagaceae) and typification of sectional names. Ann. Sci. Forest. 50(suppl.1): 25-34. Nixon, K. C. 1993b. The genus Quercus in Mexico. In: T. P. Ramamoorthy et al., eds. 1993. Biological Diversity of Mexico: Origin and Distribution. New York. Pp. 447-458. Palmer, E. J. 1948. Hybrid oaks of North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 1-48. Sargent, C. S. 1918. Notes on North American trees. I. Quercus. Bot. Gaz. 65: 423-459. Tillson, A. H. and C. H. Muller. 1942. Anatomical and taxonomic approaches to subgeneric segregation in American Quercus. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 523-529. Trelease, W. 1924. The American oaks. Mem. Natl. Acad. Sci. 20: 1-255.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    Oak, chêne [Classical Latin for the English oak, Quercus robur, from some central European language]

     Information From

    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Flora of North America Association
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).