Ranunculus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 548. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Buttercup, crowfoot, renoncule [Latin rana, frog, unculus, little, allusion to the wet habitats in which some species grow]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Ranunculus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000032540. Accessed on: 02 Jun 2020'

General Information

Herbs , annual or perennial, from tuberous roots, caudices, rhizomes, stolons, or bulbous stem bases. Leaves basal, cauline, or both, simple, variously lobed or parted, or compound, all petiolate or distal leaves sessile; cauline leaves alternate (rarely a distal pair opposite in Ranunculus sect. Flammula ). Leaf blade reniform to linear, margins entire, crenate, or toothed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, 2-50-flowered cymes to 25 cm or solitary flowers; bracts present or absent, small or large and leaflike, not forming involucre. Flowers bisexual, radially symmetric; sepals sometimes persistent in fruit, 3-5(-6), green or sometimes purple, yellow, or white, plane (base saccate in R . ficaria ), oblong to elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate, 1-15 mm; petals 0-22(-150), distinct, yellow, rarely white, red, or green, plane, linear to orbiculate, 1-26 mm; nectary present, usually covered by scale; stamens (5-)10-many; filaments filiform; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 4-250, simple; ovule 1 per ovary; style present or absent. Fruits achenes, rarely utricles, aggregate, sessile, discoid, lenticular, globose, obovoid, or cylindric, sides sometimes veined; beak present or absent, terminal, straight or curved, 0-4.5 mm. x = 7, 8.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Glabrous to pubescent erect or procumbent herbaceous annuals or perennials, the stems occasionally rooting at the nodes, the roots fibrous, fascicled. Leaves radical or cauline, exstipulate, entire, dissected or compound, alternate or rarely opposite, glabrous to pubescent, often with acrid juice. Inflorescence terminal, the flowers perfect; sepals 5(-3-6), imbricate, caducous; petals (O-)5(-26), yellow, white or red, separate, with a nectariferous pit at the base, unguiculate; stamens commonly 10, often more, rarely fewer; anthers 2-celled, basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; carpels 5-many, the single ovule attached near the base of the cell. Achenes capped by the elongate style, glabrous or hairy, smooth or variously ornate.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    "Fls regular; sep green or yellowish, 3, 4, or more commonly 5, rarely more; pet mostly 5, sometimes fewer or more, each with a nectariferous pit or scale on the upper side at the base; stamens mostly numerous, rarely as few as 5; pistils numerous in a globose, ovoid, or cylindric head; ovule ordinarily 1, erect or ascending; fr an achene; annual or perennial herbs with alternate, entire to much dissected lvs and yellow, white, or rarely red fls; juice acrid, poisonous. (Batrachium, Ceratocephalus, Ficaria) 250+, ± cosmop."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Herbs perennial or annual, terrestrial or rarely aquatic. Stems usually leafy. Leaves usually both basal and along stem, lower leaves petiolate, petiole expanded into sheath at base; leaf blade simple, palmately divided, 1- or 2-ternate or, rarely, pinnate. Inflorescence a solitary terminal or leaf-opposed flower, or a simple or compound monochasium. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Receptacle ± convex, sometimes forming androgynophore (Ranunculus angustisepalus). Sepals (3--)5(--7), usually greenish, occasionally dark reddish or purple, very rarely abaxial sepal appendiculate (R. angustisepalus), deciduous or, rarely, persistent. Petals (3--)5(--10), yellow, rarely white, exceptionally red (not in Flora area), base shortly clawed, with foveolate adaxial nectary pit which is sometimes covered by a scale. Stamens numerous or rarely few. Carpels numerous, sessile or rarely stalked (R. podocarpus); ovule 1 per carpel, basal; style usually present, with adaxial stigmatic tissue, sometimes absent; distinct stigma usually absent. Fruit aggregate, globose, ovoid, or cylindric, with numerous achenes. Achenes ovoid, obovoid, or slightly to strongly bilaterally compressed, smooth, sometimes tuberculate or spiny, sometimes marginate or winged along sutures, usually greenish, black in R. melanogynus. Seeds with a copious endosperm and small embryo.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Morphology

      Perennial herbs with simple or compound petiolate radical leaves and spirally arranged cauline leaves with sheathing bases.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
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      Stamens indefinite in number.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Petals 5–8 or more, usually yellow or white with a basal nectariferous pit with or without a scale.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Sepals spreading or reflexed in anthesis.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Flowers actinomorphic in 1-many-flowered inflorescences.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Fruit of numerous achenes with usually glabrous styles.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Carpels indefinite in number, 1-ovulate.

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 5
      • ]. 

      Achenes with persistent, glabrous, sometimes hooked style.

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Sepals spreading or reflexed in anthesis

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Petals 5–8 or more, white, yellow, or with anthocyanin colours, with basal nectariferous pit with or without a scale

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Herbs with simple or compound spirally arranged leaves, usually ex-stipulate

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Stamens indefinite in number

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Carpels indefinite in number, uniovulate

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Flowers regular, in one- to many-flowered inflorescences, without definite involucres of bracts or reduced leaves

    • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 6
      • ]. 

      Habit

      herb

    • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Distribution

      Comprised of about 250 species in temperate and subarctic regions of both hemispheres, the buttercup genus is represented in Central America by few species, most of them confined to moderately high elevations. In his recent monograph of the North American species, Benson (in Am. Midl. Nat. 40: 1. 1948, and 52: 328. 1954) treats about 100 species.

    • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCES

      Benson, L. D. 1948. A treatise on the North American Ranunculi. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 40: 1-261. Benson, L. D. 1954. Supplement to a treatise on the North American Ranunculi. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 52: 328-369. Cook, C. D. K. 1966. A monographic study of Ranunculus subgenus Batrachium (DC.) A. Gray. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 6: 47-237. Duncan, T. 1980. A taxonomic study of the Ranunculus hispidus Michaux complex in the Western Hemisphere. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 77: 1-125. Nesom, G. L. 1993. Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae) in Nuevo León, with comments on the R. petiolaris group. Phytologia 75: 391-398.

    • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Included Species

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Buttercup, crowfoot, renoncule [Latin rana, frog, unculus, little, allusion to the wet habitats in which some species grow]

       Information From

      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • A Missouri Botanical Garden
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • D Flora of North America Association
      Flora de Panama
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
      Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • G
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Ranunculaceae
      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).