Raphia P. Beauv.
  • Fl. Oware 1: 75–77, t. 44–46. 1804[1806].


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Raphia P. Beauv. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000032559. Accessed on: 28 Sep 2021'

General Information

RAPHIA P. Beauv.

Por Robert W. Read

Raphia taedigera (Mart.) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 216. 1838; Sagus taedigera Mart.; R. vinifera var. taedigera (Mart.) Drude; R. nicaraguensis Oerst.

Palmas grandes, agrupadas, armadas, hapaxantas; tallos 2–9 (–15) m de alto y ca 30 cm de diámetro, cubiertos por las bases traslapadas de las hojas, raíces formando densos neumatóforos sobre el nivel de las aguas; plantas monoicas. Hojas pinnadas, erectas, 12–15 m de largo, recurvadas apicalmente y con 100 o más pinnas; pinnas irregularmente dispersas, subopuestas, 100–200 cm de largo y 4–5 cm de ancho, brillantes, lánguidas en el ápice, nervio principal prominente con nervios secundarios fuertes a cada lado, ápice largamente puntiagudo, furfuráceo lepidoto en el nervio principal abaxialmente, márgenes armados con acúleos inconspicuos; vaina marcadamente fibrosa, pecíolo inconspicuo, 15–20 cm de grueso en la base. Inflorescencias terminales, variadamente ramificadas, ramas principales 3–5, arqueadas a péndulas, 200–500 cm de largo, ejes ocultos por numerosas brácteas envainadoras y traslapadas, éstas progresivamente más pequeñas hacia las raquillas terminales; raquillas dísticas, flores pistiladas generalmente arregladas a lo largo de la porción basal y las estaminadas arregladas distalmente; flores estaminadas cada una rodeada por una bractéola cupuliforme, bicarinada, cáliz cupuliforme, pétalos valvados, connados basalmente, estambres 6 (–20?); flores pistiladas cada una con 2 bractéolas persistentes, cáliz entero a ligeramente lobado formando un tubo que encierra a la corola, anillo estaminodial lobado. Frutos ovoide-oblongos, 5–7 cm de largo y 3–4 cm de diámetro con un rostro corto, agudo y terminal, truncado, completamente cubierto con placas escamosas, éstas traslapadas, reflexas, café-anaranjado lustrosas y con márgenes escariosos, mesocarpo aceitoso, suave cuando maduro; semilla 1, 4.5–8 cm de largo y 2.7–4.5 cm de diámetro, endosperma ruminado, eofilo generalmente pinnado, raramente bífido.

Rara, en pantanos, sur de la zona atlántica; nivel del mar; fr jul; Rueda 4685, Smith 54; Nicaragua a Brasil. No dudo de que la palma nicaragüense descrita por Oersted es la misma que aquella bajo idénticas condiciones ecológicas en Costa Rica y Panamá. La decisión de Beccari sobre R. nicaraguensis como sinónimo de R. ruffia (Jacq.) Mart. se basó únicamente en las flores inmaduras de la colección de Oersted y unos pocos fragmentos de hojas en el herbario de Copenhague. Las observaciones acerca de la falta de aguijones en los márgenes de los segmentos de las hojas pudo ser el resultado del escaso material o de la falta de observación y necesita ser verificado en el campo. Género con 28 especies de Africa y Madagascar, sólo esta especie en América. "Jolillo".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Monoecious unarmed pinnate-leaved heavy trees, often soboliferous or growing in clumps in moist or- wet places, monocarpic (plant dying after fruiting): spadices immense in size, interfoliar; the great branches pendent or hanging, 2 m. and more long, thicker than a man's arm, the ultimate stiff or even rigid distichous rachillae 6-10 cm. long and very closely flowered, the long staminate flowers con- spicuously imbedded, stamens 6 and more with erect linear anthers; pistillate flowers larger or at least broader than the staminate, ovoid, the closed body or involucre covered with retrorse scales, staminodia present inside, ovary 3-loculed, stigma sessile; trusses or "hands" of flowers and fruits projecting from beneath hard parchment-like sheathing imbricate scales or spathes that immutably involve the rachis: fruit a loricate oblong or pyriform body 4-6 cm. long, containing within the shell a single oblong nut-like seed ornamented with rapheal lines' and depressions and ruminate inside with prominent intrusions.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Fruit tipped with the stigmatic remains and covered with the enlarged reflexed scales arranged in vertical rows, each normally with a depressed vertical central line; mesocarp oily

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Seed with a moderately thick, rather dry testa and endosperm penetrated by rather large ruminations; embryo lateral

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Germination adjacent-ligular; seedling leaf pinnate.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Male flower with tubular scarcely 3-lobed calyx; corolla tubular below, with 3 free lobes above; stamens 6–20 or more, briefly epipetalous and usually connate by their fleshy filaments to some degree; pistillode sometimes present, minute

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaf reduplicately pinnate, massive (some of the largest leaves in the plant kingdom); leaf-base briefly sheathing, in some species (not in E. Africa) producing broad black fibres (‘piassava’) clothing the stem; petiole short to long; rachis channelled adaxially in proximal region, with 2 lateral grooves accommodating the leaflets in bud; leaflets numerous, crowded, one-fold, arranged in 1–several planes; leaflets in most species spiny along margins and/or midvein, usually with abundant wax on the abaxial surface

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences produced ± simultaneously in the axils of the most distal, often reduced leaves or bracts, erect or pendulous; axis of the inflorescence bearing a prophyll and several empty tubular bracts, followed by subdistichous or faintly 4-ranked bracts each subtending a first order branch; first order branches each with a basal prophyll and several empty tubular bracts followed by subdistichous or faintly 4-ranked bracts each subtending a rachilla; rachillae tending to lie ± in the same plane, each with a basal prophyll and several empty bracts followed by distichous tubular bracts each subtending a flower, female flowers in the proximal 1/4–3/4 of the rachilla, male flowers in the distal portion, rarely 1–2 bracts subtending a pair, one male and one female; each flower enclosed within a 2-keeled prophyll, and in the instance of the female flower, with a second tubular bracteole

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stem, whether short or not, of massive construction, with internodes relatively short, usually covered with rotting leaf-bases and fibres, and often with apogeotropic roots

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Solitary or clustered, acaulescent to erect, massive, hapaxanthic, monoecious palms

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Female flower with tubular 3-lobed calyx; corolla tubular below with 3 free petals above; staminodal ring present, epipetalous, with sterile flattened, sagittate anthers; pistil with 3 free or connate terminal stigmas; ovary covered with vertical rows of reflexed fimbriate scales; locules 3, each with a single bitegmic, anatropous ovule, normally only 1 ovule developing to maturity

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 20 species in tropical Africa, and several varieties; the only Old World genus of palms native also in the western hemisphere, represented on the continent by apparently a single species; another species on Martinique, French West Indies, is perhaps introduced.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).