Rhamnus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 193. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Buckthorn, nerprun [Greek rhamnos, prickly shrubs, such as buckthorn]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Rhamnus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000032872. Accessed on: 27 Nov 2020'

General Information

10. Rhamnus L.

Por A.Pool.

Árboleso arbustos, erectos o rara vez desparramados o trepadores, las plantas conaguijones o sin estos (sin en Mesoamérica); yemas con escamas. Hojas alternas(en Mesoamérica), opuestas, subopuestas o fasciculadas sobre brotes cortos,pinnatinervias, las nervaduras laterales sin franjas, sin glándulas en la uniónde la lámina con el pecíolo, los márgenes enteros o dentados, cada dientefrecuentemente con una glándula pequeña apical; pecioladas; estípulas libres,dispuestas lateralmente en la base del pecíolo, no lobadas. Inflorescenciasaxilares, pedunculadas o sésiles, en fascículos, cimas, las cimas a vecesracemosas o arregladas en tirsos o las flores solitarias, las florespediceladas, las bractéolas ausentes o muy tempranamente caducas (al menos enMesoamérica). Flores generalmente unisexuales o con menos frecuenciabisexuales, generalmente 4-meras (como en Mesoamérica), con menos frecuencia5-meras, los pétalos algunas veces muy reducidos o ausentes en las florespistiladas; hipanto tubular, infundibuliforme o campanulado, muy rara vezcircuncísil directamente debajo de los sépalos (no en Mesoamérica); sépalostriangulares, en general inconspicuamente carinados adaxialmente,desprendiéndose a lo largo del borde del hipanto (o rara vez y no enMesoamérica, con la porción superior del hipanto); pétalos mucho más cortos quelos sépalos, cóncavos, la uña más corta que el limbo, o ausente, el limboapicalmente entero a profundamente bilobado, blanco o blanco-verdoso, dobladolateralmente alrededor de los filamentos y la base de las anteras en las floresestaminadas en antesis y alrededor del filamento y todas las anteras rudimentariasen las flores pistiladas (al menos en Mesoamérica), los pétalos algunas vecesmuy reducidos o ausentes en las flores pistiladas; estambres opuestos a lospétalos, más largos que estos al madurar en las flores estaminadas, las anterasrudimentarias en las flores pistiladas; disco cubriendo la superficie internadel hipanto, hipógino, relativamente delgado, nectarífero, glabro, entero;ovario súpero, 2-4-locular (2 en Mesoamérica), el estilo profundamente2-4-hendido (2 en Mesoamérica), el pistilodio rudimentario o ausente en lasflores estaminadas. Frutos en drupas carnosas, globosas u obovoides, con 2-4pirenos dehiscentes (2 en Mesoamérica), las drupas generalmente deprimidasentre los pirenos cuando secas; pirenos con dehiscencia longitudinal a lo largode la línea media adaxialmente; semillas 1 por pireno, la semilla con un canallongitudinal abaxial notorio. Aprox. 150 especies, Norteamérica a Guatemala,Sudamérica templada, Europa, África, Asia.

Lamayoría de especies tratadas como Rhamnus en Johnston y Johnston (1978) y Flora of Guatemala, y todas enla Flora of Panama se consideran en este tratamiento como Frangula (véase la discusión bajo este último).

Bibliografía:Johnston, L.A. Sida 6:67-79 (1975).

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or small to medium-sized trees, deciduous or rarely evergreen, often spinose. Branches opposite or alternate, unarmed or terminating in a woody spine; winter buds naked (R. subg. Frangula) or with scales (R. subg. Rhamnus). Leaves opposite or alternate, rarely fasciculate on short shoots; stipules mainly subulate, caducous, rarely persistent; leaf blade always undivided, pinnately veined, margin serrate or rarely entire. Flowers mostly yellowish green, small, bisexual or unisexual, rarely polygamous, solitary or few fascicled in axillary cymes, cymose racemes, or cymose panicles. Calyx tube campanulate to cup-shaped; sepals 4 or 5, ovate-triangular, adaxially ± distinctly keeled. Petals 4 or 5, rarely absent, shorter than sepals, cucullate to hooded, often enfolding stamens, base shortly clawed, apex often 2-fid. Stamens 4 or 5, surrounded by and equaling petals or shorter; anthers dorsifixed. Disk thin, adnate and lining calyx tube. Ovary superior, globose, free, 2-4-loculed; styles ± deeply 2-4-cleft. Fruit a 2-4-stoned, berrylike drupe, obovoid-globose or globose; stones indehiscent or ventrally dehiscing. Seeds obovoid or oblong-obovoid, unfurrowed or abaxially or laterally with a ± long, narrow to gaping, often distinctly margined furrow; endosperm fleshy.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, erect or spreading, unarmed or armed with thorns; bud scales present, buds glabrate. Leaves deciduous or persistent, present at flowering, alternate or opposite to subopposite, sometimes fascicled on short shoots; blade not gland-dotted; pinnately veined, secondary veins arching, not parallel. Inflorescences axillary, within foliage, fascicles or cymes, or flowers solitary; peduncles and pedicels not fleshy in fruit. Pedicels present. Flowers usually unisexual, rarely some bisexual (plants polygamous); hypanthium campanulate to cupulate, 2–3 mm wide, usually not circumscissile, rarely so at or just proximal to sepal bases; sepals 4–5, spreading, yellowish, yellowish green, green, or greenish white to white, ovate-triangular, thin, not keeled or crested adaxially; petals 0 or 4[–5], yellowish to cream, hooded, spatulate, not clawed; nectary thin, lining hypanthium; stamens 4–5, (rudimentary in pistillate flowers); ovary superior, 2–4-locular; styles 2–4, connate proximally. Fruits drupes; stones 2–4, longitudinally dehiscent. Seeds obovoid or oblong-obovoid, not beaked, longitudinally furrowed. x = 12.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    RHAMNUS L.

    Ver. Frangula

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, rarely woody vines, mostly unarmed, deciduous, the buds scaly or naked. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, pinnately-veined, entire or toothed, mostly petiolate. Inflorescences umbellate cymes, sometimes reduced to a single flower, sessile or pedunculate. Flowers bisexual or polygamo- dioecious, small, perigynous; floral tube cupulate to campanulate; calyx lobes 4-5, ovate to deltoid, deciduous separately or with the circumscissile upper part of the floral tube after anthesis; petals 4-5, shorter than the calyx-lobes, ovate to obovate, concave, hooded or flat, often clawed, the margin entire or bibbed apically, inserted at the margin of the floral tube; stamens 4-5, functional or sterile and rudimentary in carpellate flowers, about as long or longer than the petals, inserted at the upper margin of the floral tube; nectariferous disc lining the wall of the floral tube, sometimes thickened near its margin; ovary superior, 2-3-carpellate, + 2-3-locular, the ovules 2-3, the style simple or 2-3-lobed, the stigma 2-3-lobed. Fruit a drupe, subglobose, dark red to black, containing 2-3 pyrenes; seeds 2-3, lenticular or wedge-shaped.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • "Fls 4–5-merous, perfect or unisexual, the staminate with vestigial pistil, the pistillate with shorter or smaller stamens; pet lacking (in one sp.) or present, small, often obcordate with the sides folded about the stamen; ovary 2–4-locular; fr a drupe with 2–4 1-seeded stones; shrubs or trees with alternate or opposite, pinnately veined, usually toothed lvs and green or greenish-white fls solitary or umbellate in the axils of a few of the lower lvs of the current season. 100, widespread."

  • Provided by: [J].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Stipules present, small, free, usually soon deciduous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually in axillary cymes or these reduced to fascicles or solitary flowers, or rarely in more elaborate bracteate or non-bracteate panicles or thyrses, 5- or 4-merous, usually perfect but in some species dioecious (? not in East Africa), perigynous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Petals present or absent

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Disk thin, lining the cup

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Ovary 3-celled or reportedly rarely 4-celled (or 2-celled but not in East Africa)

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit a drupe with 3 (or 2 but not in East Africa) or rarely 4 free 1-seeded stones.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Style usually 3-partite about half the length

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in East Africa), petiolate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs (or scandent shrubs)

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence an axillary fascicle (in our area), less often flowers solitary.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stipules small, soon deciduous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate or opposite or fasciculate, petiolate; lamina penninerved, margin often toothed.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Small trees or shrubs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually bisexual.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–5 or absent, cucullate or flat.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stamens 4–5.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Disk thin, lining the receptacle.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, 2–4-locular; ovules 1 per loculus; style simple or 2–3(4)-fid.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Receptacle urceolate or flat.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–5, valvate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Fruit obovoid, drupaceous with a fleshy or somewhat woody endocarp.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Petits arbres'ou arbustes, sarmenteux ou non.'Feuilles'alternes, opposées ou fasciculées, pétiolées, souvent dentées.'Fleurs' ☿ ou ♂♀, petites, axillaires, généralement fasciculées, moins souvent solitaires; réceptacle urcéolé ou obpyramidal; calice à 4-5 dents valvaires; pétales 4-6 ou 0, spatulés ou cucullés; étamines 4-5; disque épais, tapissant le réceptacle; ovaire supère, à style indivis ou tripartite, à 2-4 loges 1(2)-ovulées; ovules ascendants, insérés sur la paroi interne.'Drupes , souvent entourées à la base du réceptacle persistant mais non accrescent.'Graines 2-4, obovoïdes, entourées d'un endocarpe charnu à subligneux, à testa mince; albumen charnu; cotylédons épais et plans ou foliacés et recourbés, l'un entourant l'autre; radicule infère.\n\t\t\t\tGenre comprenant 155 espèces, surtout des régions tempérées et subtropicales; 4 espèces dans les régions d'altitude de l'Afrique tropicale dont 3 au Congo belge.

  • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Trees or shrubs, rarely woody vines

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    A genus of about 150 species in the temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres, but most abundant in eastern Asia and southwestern North America.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Johnston, L. A. 1975. Revision of the Rhamnus serrata complex. Sida 6: 67–79. Wolf, C. B. 1938. The North American species of Rhamnus. Rancho Santa Ana Bot. Gard. Monogr., Bot. Ser. 1.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Buckthorn, nerprun [Greek rhamnos, prickly shrubs, such as buckthorn]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • G http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • K Flora of North America Association
    Rhamnaceae
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).