Rhizophora L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 443. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Mangrove [Greek rhiza, root, and phoros, bearing, alluding to conspicuous prop roots]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Rhizophora L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033004. Accessed on: 04 Dec 2020'

General Information

Trees or shrubs, with aerial roots. Stipules reddish, sessile, leaflike, lanceolate. Leaves opposite or distichous; leaf blade glabrous, midvein extended into a caducous point, margin entire or serrulate near apex. Inflorescences axillary, dense cymes. Bracteoles forming a cup just below flower. Calyx tube adnate to ovary, persistent; lobes 5-8. Petals 4, lanceolate. Stamens 8-12; filaments much shorter than anthers or absent; anthers introrse, locules many, dehiscing by an adaxial valve. Ovary inferior, 2-loculed, apically partly surrounded by a disk, free part elongating after anthesis; style 1, sometimes very short; stigmas 4. Fruit brown, ovoid, ovoid-conic, or pyriform. Fertile seed 1 per fruit; germination viviparous; hypocotyl protruding to 78 cm before propagule falls.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, with aerial prop roots and swollen stem nodes. Leaves: stipules sheathing terminal bud, caducous; blade surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences dense, dichotomously branched cymes; bracteoles forming cup just below flower. Flowers: sepals persistent in fruit; filaments absent [much shorter than anthers]; ovary apically partly surrounded by nectary, free part elongating after anthesis. Berries brown, ovoid-conic [ovoid or pyriform], leathery. Seeds: germination viviparous; hypocotyl protruding and elongating before seedling falls from fruit.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    1. Rhizophora L.

    Por F.R. Barrie.

    Árboles o arbustos con raíces fúlcreas características. Hojas opuestas, coriáceas, elípticas a ovadas, glabras o con verrugas suberosas oscuras en el envés cuando secas, la base cuneada, muy angostamente atenuada, los márgenes enteros, el ápice agudo, obtuso o mucronado; estípulas del par terminal de las hojas maduras involutas, formando un capuchón cónico que envuelve la punta de la rama en desarrollo. Inflorescencias axilares, cimosas, glabras, bracteadas, ramificándose dicotómicamente 1-6 veces, o la primera ramificación tricotómica, o las flores solitarias. Flores bisexuales, períginas, bracteoladas; sépalos 4, glabros, el tubo del cáliz adnato a la mitad inferior del ovario; pétalos 4, caducos, lanceolados, blancos, los márgenes enteros o ciliados; estambres 8-16, sésiles o con filamentos cortos, las anteras multiloculares; ovario ínfero, 2-locular; estilo simple, bífido. Fruto indehiscente, ovoide, pardo o verde olivo, con el pericarpo coriáceo; semilla 1, vivípara, el hipocótilo emergiendo a través de un canal estilar, alargándose hasta 15-70 cm. El propágulo es una plántula con el hipocótilo extendido. Manglares: zonas de marea, lagunas estuarinas y costeras, de aguas salobres. 8 spp. Trópicos.

    Bibliografía: Jiménez, J.A. Brenesia 28: 25-32 (1987). Tomlinson, P. B. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge Univ. Press (1986).

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    RHIZOPHORA L.

    Arboles con raíces zancudas. Hojas opuestas, enteras, coriáceas; estípulas grandes, foliáceas, caducas. Inflorescencias cimas axilares y dicótomas, raramente flores solitarias; flores 2-bracteoladas; sépalos 4, valvados, gruesos y coriáceos; pétalos 4, coriáceos, iguales o más cortos que los sépalos, márgenes vellosos; estambres 8–12, filamentos muy cortos, disco grande; ovario ínfero, 2-carpelar, 2-locular, estigma bilobado. Fruto una drupa coriácea, con sépalos persistentes en el ápice, unilocular; semillas 1 (–2), germinando mientras están unidas al árbol madre y produciendo una radícula larga que surge desde el ápice del fruto.

    Un género con 7 especies confinado a los manglares costeros de los trópicos de todo el mundo, escasamente llegando a las zonas subtropicales; 3 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua. La corteza es rica en taninos y la madera es muy usada para leña, carbón y construcción de barcos. Las especies de Rhizophora son extremadamente importantes ecológicamente como estabilizadores de lodazales costeros. Los manglares también son áreas importantes de reproducción de muchas especies silvestres.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Maritime trees and shrubs with adventitious aerial and prop roots, branchlets stout and furrowed, with prominent leaf and stipule scars. Leaves opposite, simple, entire, evergreen, coriaceous, often spotted dorsally; stipules foliose, sessile, cadu- cous. Inflorescence axillary, cymose, persistently bracteate. Flowers perfect, regular. Sepals 4, valvate, distinct, coriaceous, reflexed and persistent in fruit. Petals 4, alternate with the sepals, involute, often with hairy margins, caducous. Stamens 8-12, introrse, sessile, in one whorl, cuneate, areolate, a membrane covering the areolae opening at the inner edge to free the pollen. Ovary half-inferior, bilocular, the superior portion conical, surrounded by a fleshy disc; style terete, the stigma bifid or rarely trifid; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a dry berry crowned by the persistent calyx, indehiscent. Seed 1 by abortion, suspended, germinating while the fruit is still on the tree.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Calyx glabrous, leathery, surrounded at the base by a persistent cup-shaped pair of bracteoles, accrescent and reflexed in fruit; calyx-tube ± adnate to the ovary; calyx-lobes 4(5).

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Petals entire, not clawed, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stamens 4 epipetalous plus 4 or 8 episepalous, inserted on the margin of the crenulate disk, sessile or subsessile; anthers narrowly oblong, triquetrous, pointed, with numerous pollen-sacs within a membranous epidermis, multilocular, opening by a large ventral valve.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior to semi-inferior, 2-locular, each locule 2-ovulate; style obscure or up to 6 mm. long, with a simple or shortly 2-lobed stigma.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Wholly glabrous evergreen shrubs or trees of muddy sea-shores and estuaries, with stems supported by numerous aerial, adventitious, branched, capped prop-roots developed from the upper nodes; pneumatophores absent; branches stout, opposite.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaves decussate, petiolate; leaf-lamina entire, leathery, usually black-dotted beneath, with nerves obscure below and visible or distinct above, midrib protruding at the tip into a caducous mucro; stipules large, lanceolate, ± red when fresh.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences cymose, simple or 2–3-dichotomously-branched, axillary, peduncled.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual, 2-bracteolate, shortly pedicellate.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit a leathery, indehiscent, mostly 1-seeded (very rarely 2–3-seeded) berry, included in and ± adnate to the calyx-tube, with a granular or roughened surface; cotyledons connate into a fleshy body continuous with but set off from a clavate, elongate hypocotyl which perforates the apex of the fruit and falls out of it; endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Aerial roots present as prop-roots and (adventitiously) developed from upper nodes

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves evergreen, opposite, petiolate, entire, leathery and glabrous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs of muddy shores and estuaries, with stout opposite branches

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences cymose; bracteoles paired and persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Calyx connate below, adnate to the ovary, 4 (–5)-partite, persistent, becoming reflexed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior to half inferior, 2-celled; placentae 2-ovulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Fruit a leathery indehiscent berry

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Seed usually solitary (very rarely 2), viviparous; endosperm absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Hypocotyl terete, swollen subdistally, pointed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stamens 8–12 in a single whorl; anthers narrowly oblong, longer than the filaments, basifixed, triquetrous, having numerous pollen sacs within a membranous epidermis

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Embryo falling by separation from the cotyledons, leaving the fruit on the tree.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Arbres ou arbustes'des mangroves, à racines-échasses.'Feuilles'opposées, stipulées, coriaces, ponctuées de petites plages subéreuses à la face inférieure. Cymes hipares, chaque paire de bractées et de bractéoles soudées en cupule.'Fleurs'4-mères; étamines 8-16, sessiles à subsessiles; anthères multiloculaires, déhiscentes de haut en bas par un clapet ventral; disque épais; ovaire semi-infère, 2-loculaire, à placentation axile et à 2 ovules par loge; style simple, à stigmate ± bilobé.'Fruits'ovoïdes-pyriformes, ne contenant généralement qu'une seule graine développée.'Graines germant sur l'arbre, l'hypocotyle perçant le sommet du fruit; cotylédons soudés en un tube restant attaché au fruit après libération de la plantule, celle-ci portant les stipules qui protègent le sommet de la tige.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical comprenant une dizaine d'espèces, dont une en Afrique orientale et 3 en Afrique occidentale. Pour la Flore : 1 espèce.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Habit

    trees

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Mangrove [Greek rhiza, root, and phoros, bearing, alluding to conspicuous prop roots]

     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    Rhizophoraceae
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).