Rubia L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 109. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Rubia L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033575. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2021'

General Information

Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs, not rarely clambering or climbing vines or rarely lianas, unarmed; stems often prickly and/or longitudinally ribbed or winged. Raphides present. Leaves opposite and with interpetiolar, triangular or ovate, persistent to caducous (Rubia siamensis) or reduced (R. tibetica) stipules or with leaflike stipules in whorls of 4, 6, to many in middle stem regions; domatia none; main veins single or 3-5(or more) and then palmate, secondary veins lateral. Inflorescences thyrsoid, with terminal and/or axillary cymes, usually paniculiform and often expanding from new axes developing with age; individual cymes few to many flowered, pedunculate, bracteate. Flowers pedicellate or sessile, rather small, usually bisexual and monomorphic, rarely polygamo-dioecious (R. cordifolia). Ovary inferior (hypanthium), ellipsoid, subglobose, 2-celled, ovules 1 in each cell, erect, axile. Calyx limb reduced and obsolete. Corolla white to cream, yellow, greenish or red to purplish, often turning black when dried, mostly rotate, but rarely also campanulate to funnel-shaped, inside glabrous or infrequently papillose; lobes predominantly 5 (rarely also less or more), valvate in bud, often long acuminate. Stamens usually 5, inserted at corolla base (or tube), exserted; filaments developed to reduced; anthers dorsifixed. Stigmas 2-lobed, included or exserted. Fruit developing into 2 separate or (by reduction) into only 1 subglobose, baccate, berrylike mericarp with fleshy meso- and endocarp, dark red, purple, black, or infrequently orange (R. cordifolia), glabrous or somewhat hairy; seeds ("pyrenes") 2, ellipsoid, subglobose, or plano-convex, with membranous testa; endosperm corneous; embryo subincurved; cotyledons leaflike; radicle prolonged, basiscopic.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Anthers exserted.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 5
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    Ovary bilocular, one ovule in each chamber, crowned by a minute disk; style branches 2, joined below; stigmas capitate.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Calyx lobes obsolete.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Corolla rotate to subcampanulate, greenish, yellowish green to yellow; lobes ± triangular, (long) acuminate.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Leaves in whorls of (3)4–8(12), petiolate (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), blades cordate or broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate to linear, rounded to ± cordate at base or narrowed to base, with 1–5(7) prominent veins.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Stems branched, 4-angled, ± brittle, mostly beset with recurved prickles.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers in axillary and/or terminal cymes, hermaphrodite, 5 (rarely 4 or 6) -merous.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Scrambling, creeping or climbing perennial herbs, somewhat woody near the base; roots quite woody, reddish (yielding a red dye).

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Fruit fleshy, glabrous, consisting of 2 round mericarps, each with a single seed, round on dorsal side, plane to convex on ventral side; one mericarp often aborted.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Herbs, the stems sometimes woody towards the base, often stiffly hairy or with tiny prickles

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves in whorls of 4–6(–8), some of which may be stipular in origin; blades linear, lanceolate, obovate or less often cordate, often prickly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers small, in axillary and/or terminal cymes, hermaphrodite

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ovary 1–2-locular; ovules solitary in each locule, erect, affixed to the septum, amphitropous; style 2-fid or styles 2, short; stigmas capitate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Fruit fleshy, of 2 parts or rarely 1-locular

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Seeds suberect, with plane or concave ventral face, horny endosperm and membranous testa, adhering to the pericarp.

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Calyx-tube ovoid or globose, the limb obsolete

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Corolla rotate or subcampanulate, (4–)5(–6)-merous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, the anthers exserted

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Disc small, swollen

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rubiaceae
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).