Rubus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Bramble [Ancient Latin name for bramble, from ruber, red]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Rubus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033581. Accessed on: 04 Aug 2020'

General Information

19. Rubus L., nom. cons.

Por F.R. Barrie.

Arbustos erectos o semiescandentes, o rastreras o bejucos escandentes. Tallos, hojas e inflorescencias inermes o más generalmente armados con aguijones delgados a robustos, rectos o recurvados, y cubiertos con tricomas simples blancos a rojizos y también frecuentemente con tricomas glandulares rojizos. Tallos verdes, rojos o color rojo-púrpura. Hojas 3-folioladas o 5-folioladas, pinnadas o simples, los márgenes simples o doblemente serrados; estípulas persistentes. Inflorescencias terminales o axilares, en racimos o panículas, o las flores solitarias. Flores pediceladas; hipanto aplanado; bractéolas ausentes; sépalos 5, verdes, persistentes en fruto; pétalos 5, blancos, rosados o color púrpura; estambres numerosos; ovario súpero; carpelos 10-100 o más, libres, el estilo terminal. Frutos en agregados de drupéolas, estas individualmente caedizas o como una unidad, ya sea unidas o libres del receptáculo, amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas o negro-purpúreas al madurar. Aprox. 700 spp. América, Europa, Asia; 23 spp. (20 nativas) en Mesoamérica.

Bibliografía: Rydberg, P.A. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 428-480 (1913). Focke, W.O. Biblioth. Bot. 72(1): 1-120 (1910); 72(2): 121-223 (1911); 83: 1-274 (1914).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, perennial, 0.5–30(–50) dm; fibrous, ± woody in species with larger plants. Stems 1–several, ?biennial or perennial, rarely annual (R. illecebrosus)?, erect, arching, mounding, or creeping, rarely decumbent, ascending, or scrambling, ?rooting or not at nodes or tips, terete or angled?; ?prickles absent or sparse to dense, erect to retrorse, weak to stout, broad based or not; bristles absent or sparse to dense, erect to slightly retrorse, weak to stiff?; glabrous or hairy, eglandular or stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular, ?pruinose or not?. Leaves winter-persistent to deciduous, cauline; stipules filiform or elliptic to ovate, margins entire; petiole present; blade reniform to orbiculate, 2–30 cm, herbaceous to ± coriaceous, leaflets 0 or 3, 5, 7, or 9, terminal ovate to elliptic to obovate, ?1.7–15 cm, base cuneate to rounded or cordate, sometimes truncate, rarely tapered or obtuse, unlobed or lobed?, margins flat or revolute, finely to coarsely crenate, dentate to doubly dentate, or serrate to doubly serrate, abaxial surface ?unarmed or with prickles on midvein consistent with those on stems?, glabrous or ± densely hairy, eglandular or ± densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular, along veins. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, 1–35(–100)-flowered, cymiform, racemiform, umbelliform, thyrsiform, or paniculiform, glabrous or sparsely to densely pubescent, ?eglandular or sparsely to densely glandular, armed or unarmed?; bracts usually present; bracteoles absent. Pedicels present, ?unarmed or sparsely armed with prickles similar to those of stems, glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy, eglandular or sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular?. Flowers bisexual (unisexual in R. chamaemorus, R. ursinus, and subg. Micranthobatus [in the sense of Kalkman]), 5–80 mm diam.; hypanthium 3–10 mm diam., glabrous or sparsely to densely pubescent, ?eglandular or sparsely to densely glandular?; sepals 5, erect or spreading to reflexed, lanceolate to long-caudate, ?unarmed or armed, glabrous or hairy, eglandular or sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes sessile-glandular?; petals (0–)5(or 6), white to pink or magenta, suborbiculate to elliptic, obovate, or spatulate; stamens 20–100+, shorter to longer than petals, ?filaments filiform or laminar?; carpels glabrous or hairy, ?styles slender or clavate?. Fruits aggregated drupelets, (1–)5–100[–150], ?not or weakly to strongly coherent?, separating with or without torus attached, golden yellow to red or black, globose to hemispheric or cylindric, 5–20 mm, ?fleshy or dryish?, glabrous or finely hairy, ?sometimes pruinose?; hypanthium usually persistent; sepals usually persistent, usually reflexed. Seeds 1 per drupelet. x = 7.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or subshrubs, deciduous, rarely evergreen or semievergreen, sometimes perennial creeping dwarf herbs. Stems erect, climbing, arching, or prostrate, glabrous or hairy, usually with prickles or bristles, sometimes with glandular hairs, rarely unarmed. Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple, palmately or pinnately compound, divided or undivided, toothed, glabrous or hairy, sometimes with glandular hairs, bristles, or glands; stipules persistent, ± adnate to petiole basally, undivided or occasionally lobed, persistent or caducous, near base of petiole or at junction of stem and petiole, free, usually dissected, occasionally entire. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual and plants dioecious, in cymose panicles, racemes, or corymbs, or several in clusters or solitary. Calyx expanded, sometimes with a short, broad tube; sepals persistent, erect or reflexed, (4 or)5(–8). Petals usually 5, rarely more, occasionally absent, white, pink, or red, glabrous or hairy, margin entire, rarely premorse. Stamens numerous, sometimes few, inserted at mouth of hypanthium; filaments filiform; anthers didymous. Carpels many, rarely few, inserted on convex torus, each carpel becoming a drupelet or drupaceous achene; locule 1; ovules 2, only 1 developing, collateral, pendulous; style filiform, subterminal, glabrous or hairy; stigma simple, capitate. Drupelets or drupaceous achenes aggregated on semispherical, conical, or cylindrical torus, forming an aggregate fruit, separating from torus and aggregate hollow, or adnate to torus and falling with torus attached at maturity and aggregate solid; seed pendulous, testa membranous; cotyledons plano-convex.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    RUBUS L.         emend. 2015

    Arbustos perennes con tallos bianuales, erectos, arqueados o rastreros, frecuentemente aculeados y pilosos y a veces también con glándulas pediculadas o cerdas sin glándulas. Hojas alternas, ternadas, pedatiquinadas, o pinnadas, estipuladas. Inflorescencias laterales o terminales en los tallos del segundo año, flores solitarias o en corimbos o panículas; sépalos 5, persistentes; pétalos 5 en un disco alrededor de la base del receptáculo; estambres y carpelos numerosos. Fruto una drupa compuesta, 0.5–2 cm de largo, drupéolas carnosas.

    Género con más de 400 especies, principalmente en las zonas templadas del norte, pero también en las montañas tropicales de los dos hemisferios; ca 40 especies son conocidas de Centroamérica, 9 de ellas en Nicaragua y además 1 se espera encontrar. Varias especies tal como R. niveus y R. eriocarpus son cultivadas por sus frutos, para preparar postres o bebidas; la decocción de la raíz es usada como medicina; R. rosifolius es cultivada como ornamental. Todas las especies florecen y fructifican esporádicamente durante todo el año. "Zarzamora".

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 15
    • ]. 

    Woody plants, erect or trailing or somewhat climbing, bearing flowers and fruits on canes of the second year; in the first year the growths from the root are called primocanes, and in the second year are known as floricanes when they bear fruit and perish; axes usually bear sharp prickles, and often hairs and stalked glands; leaves (in the known Panama species) 3 -foliolate or 5-foliolate except sometimes a few of them simple in the inflorescence, frequently more or less per- sisting until the following year; inflorescence racemiform or paniculiform, axillary and usually terminating the canes, pedicels often lengthening in fruit; flowers perfect and complete (in our species); calyx 5-lobed, sometimes glandiferous; petals 5, distinct; stamens numerous, surpassing the head of many small closely packed pistils; fruit a syncarp composed of small simple coherent drupelets that are either attached as a body to the receptacle (blackberries) or forming a cap (raspberries) that falls intact from the receptacle.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 16
    • ]. 

    "[Continued] R. ×laevior (L. H. Bailey) Fernald = R. allegheniensis × hispidus R. ×licitus L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × pensilvanicusR. ×mainensis L. H. Bailey = R. flagellaris × hispidusR. ×miscix L. H. Bailey = R. pensilvanicus × setosusR. ×montpelierensis L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × setosusR. ×neglectus Peck = R. idaeus × occidentalisR. ×peculiaris Blanch. = R. pensilvanicus × setosus R. ×permixtus Blanch. = R. allegheniensis × hispidus R. ×pudens L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×ravus L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × setosusR. ×rixosus L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×rosa L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × pensilvanicus R. ×sanfordii L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × hispidus R. ×sceleratus Fernald = R. allegheniensis × setosusR. ×severus Fernald = R. recurvicaulis × setosus R. ×tholiformis Fernald = R. hispidus × setosus R. ×trifrons Blanch. = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×vigoratus L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosus R. ×viridifrons L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosus"

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    "Hypanthium small, flat to hemispheric; sep usually 5, valvate, spreading to reflexed, commonly with a shortly caudate tip; bractlets none; pet as many as the sep, erect or spreading, spatulate to obovate or elliptic; stamens numerous; pistils numerous, inserted on a convex to conic receptacle that often elongates in fr; ovules 2, collateral, only one maturing; style filiform or clavate; fr a cluster of drupelets, falling together (or sometimes separately), the receptacle falling with the cluster of drupelets or remaining attached to the pedicel; shrubs or less often perennial herbs, very often prickly, with simple or more commonly compound, serrate or lobed lvs and small to large, perfect or unisexual, white to pink or red fls; infl determinate, but commonly with the aspect of a raceme or corymb or panicle; x=7. 200+, cosmop.In subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus the plant sends up from a perennial base a series of biennial stems. During their first year these are termed primocanes; they are usually unbranched and normally do not fl. During their second year they are known as floricanes; they increase no more in length, but emit a number of short lateral branches with a few lvs and usually a terminal fl or infl. The lvs of the primocane are compound; those of the floricane are often partly simple, and often of a different shape. Most of the spp. of subg. Rubus grow in disturbed habitats, often representing an early stage in plant succession. Different species may grow intermingled in such places. Some of the same species also grow in more stable habitats, with some sorting out of species by habitat. The taxonomy of Rubus is complicated by hybridization, polyploidy, and apomixis. The subgenus Rubus (blackberries) is particularly difficult, and the conservative treatment here presented is subject to extensive change when a proper biosystematic study can be made. Some of the many names listed in synonymy should probably be transferred to the partial list of putative hybrids, hybrid segregates, and local populations of hybrid origin presented below. R. ×aculiferus Fernald = R. allegheniensis × setosus R. ×adjacens Fernald = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×alter L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×arcuans Fernald & H. St. John = R. recurvicaulis × setosus R. ×bicknellii L. H. Bailey = R. recurvicaulis × setosusR. ×biformispinus Blanch. = R. allegheniensis × hispidusR. ×biformispinus Blanch. = R. allegheniensis × hispidusR. ×blanchardianus L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×electus L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × hispidus R. ×glandicaulis Blanch. = R. allegheniensis × setosus R. ×harmonicus L. H. Bailey = R. hispidus × setosus R. ×jacens Blanch. = R. hispidus × setosusR. ×jactus L. H. Bailey = R. allegheniensis × hispidus [Continued]"

  • Provided by: [I].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Carpels many (c. 15–100 +), borne on a spongy elongate receptacle, developing into drupelets, the fruit usually sweet and edible.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, alternating with sepals, inserted on margin of perigynous cup, conspicuous or inconspicuous, or sometimes absent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stamens 8, inserted on rim of cup.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Flowers sometimes solitary, more usually in dense or open many-flowered inflorescences borne at and near the ends of branches. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, slightly perigynous.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Perigynous zone (= calyx-tube) shallowly cup-shaped; calyx segments 5, equal, longer than calyx-tube.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaflets with serrated margins, glabrous to densely hairy.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Stipules filiform, linear or obovate, free or adnate to the base of the petiole.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Prickly shrubs, sometimes glandular (but rarely so in the F.Z. area); stems scrambling, trailing or occasionally prostrate, often becoming thick and woody and hollow with age.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, trifoliolate, imparipinnate with 2–3(4) pairs of lateral leaflets, or the uppermost leaves sometimes simple.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Ovules 2, one of them aborting.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Fruit consisting of many one-seeded drupes crowded together on an enlarged or elongated receptacle, which may or may not come away when ripe.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Carpels many, each containing two ovules, aggregated into a head

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, often much reduced or absent

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stamens many, the filaments commonly glabrous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or scramblers, erect or with long, ± arching sterile shoots (turions) arising from the base and rooting if and when touching the ground

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Leaves of tropical East African species petiolate, stipulate, simple, trifoliate, imparipinnate, quinnate or septenate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Stems pruinose or not, armed in tropical East African species with prickles, glabrous varying to villous or tomentose, sometimes abundantly covered with ± reddish bristly hairs or stipitate glands

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Calyx-lobes 5, clasping, spreading or reflexing, connate near the base

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Flowers perigynous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Alice, L. A. and C. S. Campbell. 1999. Phylogeny of Rubus (Rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 81–97. Bailey, L. H. 1941–1945. Species batorum. The genus Rubus in North America (north of Mexico) I–X. Gentes Herb. 5: 1–918. Davis, H. A. 1990. Studies in Rubus. Castanea 55: 22–30. Davis, H. A., A. M. Fuller, and T. Davis. 1967–1970. Contributions towards the revision of eubati of eastern North America. Castanea 32: 20–37; 33: 50–76, 206–241; 34: 157–179, 235–266; 35: 176–194. Widrlechner, M. P. 1998. The genus Rubus L. in Iowa. Castanea 63: 415–465.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Bramble [Ancient Latin name for bramble, from ruber, red]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • I Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • J Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • K Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rosaceae
    CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).