Salix L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1015. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Willow, saule [Latin name for willow]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Salix L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033844. Accessed on: 21 Sep 2020'

General Information

Trees or shrubs deciduous, rarely evergreen (if shrubs, then erect, ascending procumbent, creeping, or cushion-shaped); pith terete. Branches terete. Terminal bud usually absent; budswith single scale. Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite or opposite; stipules small, free, deciduous or persistent, developed mainly on vigorous branchlets; petiole short; leaf bladevariously shaped, often long and narrow. Flowering precocious, coetaneous, or serotinous; catkins upright or spreading, rarely pendulous; bracts entire, persistent or caducous.Flowers entomophilous or anemophilous, each with 1 or 2 glands: 1 abaxial (dorsal) or absent and 1 adaxial (ventral), i.e., abaxial gland between bract and stipe, adaxial gland betweenstipe and rachis. Male flower: stamens 2-many; filaments free or partly to completely connate, usually exceeding bracts; anthers 2-loculed (rarely 4-loculed if filaments connate), openinglengthwise. Female flower: ovary 2-loculed, sessile or stipitate; style 1, short, slender, or absent, entire or 2-cleft; stigmas 1 or 2, lobed or entire. Capsule 2-valved. Seeds mostly green orgray-green, small, surrounded by fine hairs.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Shrubs or trees, slightly heterophyllous, clonal or not, clones formed by root shoots, rhizomes, layering, or stem fragmentation; branching sympodial. Stems not spinose. Buds 1-scaled (oily in S. barrattiana), margins connate into calyptra or distinct and overlapping adaxially, scale inner membranaceous layer usually not separating from outer layer, sometimes free and separating). Leaves deciduous or marcescent; stipules persistent, caducous, or absent (varying in presence and size on early and late leaves); petiole glandular-dotted or lobed distally; (blade often more than twice as long as wide, venation usually pinnate, margins entire, crenulate, crenate, serrate, serrulate, or spinulose-serrulate, teeth gland-tipped). Inflorescences axillary or subterminal, catkins, erect, spreading, or ± pendulous, sessile or terminating flowering branchlets, unbranched (except in subg. Longifoliae); floral bract apex entire, erose, 2-fid, or irregularly toothed; pistillate bract persistent or deciduous after flowering. Pedicels present or absent. Flowers: (sessile), perianth reduced to adaxial nectary (rarely also abaxial nectary, then distinct or connate into shallow cup); stamens 1, 2, or 3-10; filaments distinct or connate; ovary (stipitate or sessile), 2-carpellate; ovules (2-)4-24(-42) per ovary; styles usually connate, sometimes distinct distally; stigmas 2, entire or 2-lobed (less than 2 mm). Fruits capsular, (2-valved, obclavate to ovoid or ellipsoid). Seeds: aril present. x = 19.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    SALIX L.

    Salix humboldtiana Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 657. 1806.

    Arboles o arbustos, 4–15 m de alto, corteza profundamente acanalada; ramas delgadas, flexuosas, puberulentas, con la corteza rojiza al secarse, ramitas jóvenes amarillentas al secarse; plantas dioicas. Hojas linear-lanceoladas, 4–15 cm de largo y 0.4–1 cm de ancho, ápice atenuado a agudo, base aguda a angostamente cuneada, márgenes serrulados, pilosas cuando jóvenes, glabras con la edad; pecíolos 3–7 mm de largo, acanalados en su parte adaxial, estípulas caducas. Inflorescencias 2–5.5 cm de largo, el raquis piloso o glabro; flores estaminadas con 3–5 (–7) estambres; flores pistiladas estipitadas, el estípite 1–1.5 mm de largo, ovario angostamente elipsoide. Fruto ovoide a elipsoide, ca 3 mm de largo, 2-valvado, glabro; semillas numerosas, ca 1 mm de largo.

    Comúnmente cultivada, en bosques de galería, márgenes de ríos y bancos de arena, en todas las zonas del país; 0–950 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Moreno 4892, Stevens 21419; México y Belice hasta Chile y Argentina. Un género con ca 300 especies, mayormente distribuidas en las regiones templadas del hemisferio norte. Según Schneider el nombre S. chilensis Molina es ambiguo y probablemente se aplique a una planta de otra familia. S. babylonica L., nativa de Eurasia, es cultivada en Nicaragua, sin embargo no ha sido recolectada; se puede distinguir de S. humboldtiana por sus flores estaminadas con 2 estambres por flor, sus flores pistiladas sésiles y sus hojas discoloras. Fue tratada como S. chilensis en la Flora of Guatemala. "Sauce llorón".

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Dioecious shrubs or trees, often slender and flexuous, often from a sub- terranean caudex; branching alternate. Leaves mostly deciduous, alternate, simple, often narrow, mostly denticulate, the costa prominent with numerous lateral veins; petiole mostly present; stipules mostly present, deciduous or per- sistent, sometimes foliaceous; buds with an indurate, deciduous scale and a hyaline membranous covering. Inflorescences dense spikes or racemes (aments, catkins), terminal on axillary shoots, lax or erect, subtended by basal leafy bracts; pedicels short, elongating in fruit, subtended by a bracteole. Male flowers with 1-2 short glands above the bracteole or a disc, the stamens 2-8, the filaments free or basally united, sometimes pubescent, the anthers rotund, 2-thecate, longitudinally dehiscent; female flowers with short glands above the bracteole or surrounding the ovary, the ovary sessile or stalked, 1-loculed, the style short or elongate, the stigmas 2-4, short, digitate. Fruit a small, 2-4-valved capsule, the valves somewhat leathery, apically dehiscent and recurving; seeds numerous, lenticulate, long-pilose, the embryo erect with 2 large cotyledons and a short epicotyl, the endosperm nuclear.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Panama
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    "Catkins mostly ascending or spreading, seldom drooping, developing before, with, or less often after the lvs, their scales mostly entire, sometimes erose or shallowly toothed at the tip; fls with a single short and broad to slender and elongate ventral protuberance called a gland, or the staminate fls of some spp. also with a dorsal gland; stamens typically 2, seldom only 1 (by fusion of 2), or in some spp. 3–8; stigmas 2, entire or more often bifid; capsules 2-valved; shrubs or less often trees, sometimes depressed and mat-forming; winter-buds covered by a single nonresinous scale. 300+, mainly N. Temp. Taxonomy complicated by hybridization."

  • Provided by: [K].New York Botanical Garden
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    Morphology

    Ovary 2-merous seeds covered with hairs.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Flowers often precocious

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Shrubs or small trees

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    With narrow leaves

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    • Source: [
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    Flowers often appearing before the leaves; disk of 1–2 fleshy glands (nectaries).

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    Male flowers with 2-many stamens; anthers ovate or oblong.

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    Female flowers with style divided into 2 entire or bifid stigmas.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Trees or shrubs, rarely somewhat herbaceous.

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    • Source: [
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    Leaves narrow.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Buds with one outer scale.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Female flowers with style divided into 2 entire or bifid stigmas

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Trees or shrubs, rarely ± herbaceous

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Male flowers with 2–many stamens; anthers ovate or oblong

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Capsule 2-valved.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Leaves narrow

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers often appearing before leaves; disc of 1–2 fleshy glands (nectaries)

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Buds with one outer scale

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Habit

    shrubs or trees

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Argus, G. W. 1973. The Genus Salix in Alaska and the Yukon. Ottawa. [Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. Publ. Bot. 2.] Argus, G. W. 1986. The genus Salix in the southeastern United States. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9. Argus, G. W. 1986b. Studies in the Salix lucida Muhl. and S. reticulata L. complexes in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 541-551. Argus, G. W. 1995. Arizona Salicaceae: Willow family. Part two: Salix. J. Arizona-Nevada Acad. Sci. 29: 39-62. Argus, G. W. 1997. Infrageneric classification of Salix L. in the New World. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 52. Argus, G. W. 2007. Salix L. (Salicaceae): Distribution maps and a synopsis of their classification in North America, north of Mexico. Harvard Pap. Bot. 12: 335-368. Azuma, T., T. Kajita, J. Yokoyama, and H. Ohashi. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Salix (Salicaceae) based on rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 67-75. Dorn, R. D. 1976. A synopsis of American Salix. Canad. J. Bot. 54: 2769-2789. Dorn, R. D. 1977b. Willows of the Rocky Mountain states. Rhodora 79: 390-429. Dorn, R. D. 1997. Rocky Mountain Region Willow Identification Field Guide. Denver. Raup, H. M. 1943. The willows of the Hudson Bay Region and the Labrador Peninsula. Sargentia 4: 81-135. Raup, H. M. 1959. The willows of boreal western America. Contr. Gray Herb. 185: 1-95.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Species

    Synonyms

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Willow, saule [Latin name for willow]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • K Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Salicaceae
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).