Smilax L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1028. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Catbrier, greenbrier, sarsaparilla [ancient Greek name of an evergreen oak]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Smilax L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000035623. Accessed on: 12 Jul 2020'

General Information

Shrubs, vines, or herbs; rhizomes tuberous or stoloniferous, woody; roots filiform. Stems erect, sprawling or, more often, climbing, simple or branching, unarmed or armed with prickles; woody or herbaceous. Leaves deciduous or evergreen, alternate; stipules present; tendrils often present (few or rudimentary in S. hugeri and S. ecirrhata, absent in S. biltmoreana), paired, originating from petioles; blade linear, oblong, ovate, or, sometimes, reduced to scales in herbaceous species, base sometimes lobed. Inflorescences umbellate, axillary to leaves or bracts, loose to dense, pedunculate. Flowers unisexual; tepals 6, greenish, yellow, or bronze, ovate to elliptic; staminate flowers sometimes with pistillode, stamens 6, anthers basifixed, dehiscence introrse; pistillate flowers with 6 staminodes, style short or absent, stigmas 3, recurved, ligulate. Berries black, blue, purple, red, or orange. x = 13–16.

  • Provided by: [L].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Vines climbing or shrubs, woody, less often suberect or herbs, dioecious, usually with short, thick rhizomes. Stems and branches usually prickly. Petiole usually narrowly winged proximally, with an abscission zone between winged portion and apex; tendrils often present. Leaf blade usually ovate to lanceolate, main veins 3--7, connected by a network of cross veins and veinlets. Inflorescence borne in axil of leaf or scalelike bract, of 1(--3) umbels or a panicle, raceme, or spike of umbels; peduncle sometimes with a scalelike prophyll at base. Flowers small; tepals 6, usually free (connate in Smilax synandra). Male flowers: stamens 6, rarely 8 or more, inserted at base of tepals; anthers mostly 1-loculed. Female flowers: ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1 or 2 per locule; style very short; stigmas 3; staminodes absent to 6. Fruit a berry, red to black, usually 1- or 2-seeded. Seeds dark brown.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    1. Smilax L.

    Por M.J. Huft.

    Bejucos leñosos o a veces herbáceos, dioicos, a menudo trepando por zarcillos pareados que nacen de la base expandida de los pecíolos. Hojas alternas, 3-9-nervias desde la base o con el par interior saliendo un poco arriba de la base (triplinervia), las nervaduras secundarias generalmente reticuladas. Flores pequeñas, dispuestas en umbelas axilares (éstas a veces racemosas); tépalos libres, iguales; estambres 6, libres; ovario súpero; óvulos 1 o 2 en cada lóculo; estaminodios presentes en las flores pistiladas. Baya globosa. Aprox. 350 spp. Regiones templadas y tropicales de ambos hemisferios.

    La naturaleza dioica de este género y la escasez de colectas en flor de la mayoría de las especies se combinan para hacerlo un grupo particularmente difícil. Varios caracteres empleados previamente por varios autores para delimitar las especies, tales como el número de estaminodios en las flores pistiladas o la forma de la baya madura, han probado ser inútiles. Dadas estas limitaciones, probablemente no sea posible una clave completamente satisfactoria. Por lo menos diez nombres son colocados en sinonimia por primera vez. Además, quizá cuatro pares de especies afines deberían ser reducidos cuando se obtengan mejores colectas y sea posible hacer un estudio más detallado; éstos son: Smilax spinosa y S. luculenta ; S. kunthii y S. chiapensis ; S. aristolochiifolia y S. ornata ; y S. vanilliodora y S. chiriquensis .

    Bibliografía: Killip, E.P. y Morton, C.V. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 461: 255-298 (1936). Morton, C.V. Brittonia 14: 299-309 (1962).

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • 1
    • ]. 

    SMILAX L.

    Trepadoras leñosas o a veces herbáceas; los tallos y las hojas a menudo armados con acúleos, frecuentemente trepando por medio de zarcillos; dioicas. Hojas alternas, simples, 3–9-nervias desde la base o con el par interno surgiendo algo más arriba de la base (triplinervias). Flores actinomorfas, arregladas en umbelas axilares, éstas a veces racemosas; pedúnculo terete o aplanado; tépalos libres, iguales; estambres 6, libres, las anteras 2-loculares, introrsas; ovario súpero, 3-locular, estilos 3, óvulos 1 ó 2 en cada lóculo. Fruto con endosperma duro.

    Género con ca 350 especies en las regiones tropicales y templadas de ambos hemisferios; 19 especies se encuentran en Centroamérica y 12 en Nicaragua. "Zarzaparilla", "Cuculmeca".

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Woody vines from large rhizomes; leaves alternate, palmately nerved, the petiole sheathing at base, bearing a pair of tendrils at the apex of the sheath; flowers unisexual, borne in solitary axillary umbels, or the umbels pseudoracemose on short axillary branchlets; perianth segments 6, distinct, narrow, equal or nearly so; stamens 6, the filaments slender, free; styles 3; ovules solitary in the cells, pendulous; fruit a fleshy berry, commonly 1-seeded.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Panama
  • Lianas leñosas, dioicas; tallos frecuentemente con aguijones. Hojas simples, alternas, pecioladas, con zar-cillos estipulares pareados que nacen de la base expandida del pecíolo; lámina 3–9-nervada. Infls. axilares, umbelas solitarias, o rara vez racemosas. Fls. unisexuales, actinomorfas, pequeñas; miembros del perianto (té-palos) 6, separados, iguales; estambres 6, separados; anteras basifijas, con dehiscencia longitudinal; estamino-dios presentes en las fls. pistiladas; pistilo 1, compuesto; ovario súpero, 1–3-locular; óvulos 1 ó 2 por lóculo;placentación axilar o parietal; estilos (1)3. Fr. una baya globosa; semillas 1–3.

  • Provided by: [F].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • "Dioecious; fls in axillary pedunculate umbels, rather small, the staminate often a little larger than the pistillate; tep spreading, greenish or yellowish; filaments borne at the base of the tep; anthers basifixed; style none or very short; stigmas solitary or 3, oblong, recurved; ovules orthotropous, 1 or 2 per carpel. 300, cosmop."

  • Provided by: [K].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Flowers dioecious, in umbels or panicles

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Perianth-segments free

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6 or more, free

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence compound or simple, long or short; umbels axillary and/or terminal, 1-many

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Branchlets aculeate or not

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves glabrous, often evergreen, usually alternate; blade rounded, lanceolate, elliptic, hastate or cordate to cordate-circular, with reticulate veining; petiole short, articulate above the sheath, usually with pair of stipular tendrils

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Perennial, woody or herbaceous, branched climbers

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Seeds with small oblong embryo enclosed in hard endosperm.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Berry ± globose, black, red, violet or purple when ripe

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Female flowers with 3-6 staminodes; ovary ovoid; ovules 1 per locule, axile, pendulous, orthotropous

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Male flowers with usually 6 stamens; filaments free, hypogynous or inserted on the base of the slightly longer tepals, erect or erecto-patent, short or long; anthers basifixed

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Perianth-segments free to base, caducous during or after anthesis, subequal, inner ones usually narrower than outer ones

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers small, usually yellowish green, sometimes fragrant

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Catbrier, greenbrier, sarsaparilla [ancient Greek name of an evergreen oak]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • K Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • L Flora of North America Association
    Smilacaceae
    • M CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • N CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).