Stellaria L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 421. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Chickweed, stitchwort, starwort, stellaire [Latin stella, star, and -aria, pertaining to, alluding to shape of flower]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Stellaria L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000036401. Accessed on: 16 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial. Roots or rhizomes filiform and slender, roots sometimes robust, fleshy. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate. Leaves compressed, variously shaped, rarely needlelike; stipules absent. Flowers terminal, seldom only axillary, in cymes or solitary, small; bracts immediately subtending calyx absent. Sepals (4 or)5. Petals (4 or)5, white, rarely green, usually 2-cleft nearly to base, rarely retuse or multilobed, sometimes absent. Stamens 2--5 or (6--)10. Ovary 1-loculed, rarely 3-loculed when young; ovules numerous, rarely several and only 1 or 2 mature; styles (2 or)3(or 4). Capsule orbicular or ovoid, opening by valves (1 or)2 × number of styles. Seeds (1 to) numerous, reniform, slightly compressed, tuberculate or smooth; embryo curved.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Plants annual, winter annual, or perennial. Taproots usually slender, perennial taxa often rhizomatous, rooting at nodes. Stems prostrate to ascending or erect, simple or branched, terete or 4-angled. Leaves sometimes connate basally into sheath, often sessile; blade 1-veined, linear or lanceolate to ovate or deltate, succulent (S. crassifolia [gemmae], S. fontinalis, S. humifusa, and S. irrigua) or not, apex acute or obtuse. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, rarely axillary (S. alsine, S. americana) or umbellate (S. umbellata), or terminal or axillary solitary flowers; bracts paired (1 in S. dicranoides), foliaceous, scarious and reduced, or absent. Pedicels erect, sometimes reflexed in fruit, glabrous or pubescent, not glandular. Flowers usually bisexual (S. dicranoides unisexual); perianth and androecium hypogynous or weakly perigynous; hypanthium cup- or disc-shaped; sepals (4-)5, distinct, green, occasionally purple tinged (S. irrigua) or red proximally (S. pallida), lanceolate to ovate-triangular, 2-12 mm, herbaceous (rarely coriaceous), margins often white, scarious, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse, not hooded; petals (1-)5 or absent, white (sometimes translucent in S. borealis), not clawed, blade apex 2-fid usually for 3- 5 its length (S. holostea occasionally laciniate); nectaries at base of filaments opposite sepals usually present, disc sometimes prominent; stamens (1-)5 or 10 or absent, arising from nectariferous disc (prominent in S. dicranoides and S. irrigua) at ovary base; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; styles [2-]3(-5), capitate to clavate, 0.2-7 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas [2-]3(-5), terminal or subterminal, papillate (30×). Capsules globose to conic, opening by 3 or 6, occasionally 4, 8, or 10 ascending to recurved valves; carpophore present or absent. Seeds (1-)3-20+, yellow-brown to dark brown, globose to ellipsoid, laterally compressed, rarely shiny, papillate or rugose, rarely smooth, marginal wing absent, appendage absent. x = 10, 11, 12, 13, 15.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    STELLARIA L.

    Hierbas bajas, anuales o perennes, tallos rastreros o erectos, glabros, pilosos o escabrosos. Hojas opuestas, glabras o menos frecuentemente pubescentes; pecioladas o sésiles, estípulas ausentes. Cimas terminales o axilares, bracteadas, o las flores solitarias y axilares, brácteas similares a las hojas inferiores o más pequeñas y normalmente escariosas; sépalos (4) 5 (6), libres o basalmente connados, margen escarioso, frecuentemente glabros; pétalos (1–) 5 (6) o ausentes, bilobados, blancos; estambres (1–) 10; estilos normalmente 3, libres. Cápsulas ovoides u oblongas a globosas, más largas o de la misma longitud que el cáliz, normalmente con dehiscencia por 6 valvas (raramente 3); semillas 1–numerosas, papilosas, rugulosas, tuberculadas (en Nicaragua) o a veces lisas.

    Género con ca 120 (o posiblemente hasta 200) especies, principalmente en las regiones frío templadas de ambos hemisferios, con algunas especies en las zonas altas de los trópicos; 4 especies se conocen en Nicaragua.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Annual or perennial herbs, often much branched and clambering, the stems somewhat resilient and occasionally suffruticose below. Leaves opposite, petiolate or sessile and somewhat perfoliate, exstipulate, in Central America rather broad and membranaceous. Flowers in few-flowered dichasial cymes or less frequently solitary in the axils of slightly reduced leaves. Sepals 4-5, not connate. Petals 4-5, rarely absent, white, deeply 2-cleft. Stamens 4-10; anthers versatile, 2-celled, the flattened hypogynous filaments connate below forming a brief glandular disk. Ovary superior, carpels 2-4, with as many filiform styles free to the base; ovules 4-many, camnpylotropous on basal, central or free central placentae. Capsule deeply or shallowly dehiscing into as many 2-cleft or rarely entire valves as there are styles; seeds 4-many, cochleate, smooth or tuberculate, estrophiolate, the embryo curved about the perisperm.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
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    "Fls solitary in the forks of the stem, or in terminal cymes; sep 5; pet 5, bifid, often deeply so, or lacking; stamens mostly 10, sometimes fewer; styles mostly 3(4) but 5 in S. aquatica; ovules numerous; capsule ordinarily dehiscent by twice as many valves as there are styles, but in S. aquatica with 5 apically notched or shortly bifid valves; low annual or perennial herbs with mostly rather small, opposite, exstipulate lvs; × most commonly=13. (Alsine, Myosoton) 100+, widespread, esp. N. Temp."

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Stamens 10 (5 + 5) or fewer by reduction.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Ovary 1-locular; styles (2) 3, free.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Annual or perennial herbs usually with slender diffuse stems.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Inflorescences of terminal dichasial cymes, rarely flowers solitary.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate, simple, entire, flat or very rarely subulate, exstipulate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Petals 4–5, white, deeply bilobed, or occasionally absent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Sepals 4–5, free.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Capsule usually more or less rounded, opening at the apex by 3 or 6 (rarely 2 or 4) valves.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Seeds numerous or occasionally 1–4-, roundish-reniform.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Petals 4–5, more or less deeply bilobed, white, or occasionally absent

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Sepals free, 4–5

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Styles generally 3 but sometimes 2, free

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Stamens 5 + 5, or fewer by reduction

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs, often with slender diffuse stems, glabrous or hairy

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences dichasial cymes which are terminal to the branches, rarely the flowers solitary

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Leaves opposite, simple, entire, flat to (rarely) subulate, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Seeds either numerous or 1–4.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Capsule unilocular with 3 (or rarely 2) or 6 (rarely 4) valves

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Plantes'annuelles ou vivaces, ± dressées ou gazonnantes, parfois grimpantes, glabres ou velues.'Feuilles'planes, généralement aiguës, parfois cordées à la base.'Fleurs'☿, généralement groupées en cymes dichotomiques terminales feuillées ou non, rarement solitaires; sépales libres (3) 4-5; pétales profondément bilobés, blancs, rarement absents; étamines 10, rarement moins; disque annulaire; carpelles (2) 3; styles libres.'Capsule'globuleuse, oblongue, ellipsoïde ou ovoïde, uniloculaire, s'ouvrant en (2) 3 valves dentées ou en (4) 6 valves entières.'Graines nombreuses ou 2-4, arrondies-réniformes, rugueuses surtout au bord.\n\t\t\t\tUne centaine d'espèces, dont plusieurs cosmopolites, localisées surtout dans les régions tempérées et arctiques, ± 6 en Afrique; 2 au Congo belge.

  • Provided by: [J].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
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    Habit

    herbs

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Distribution

    Composed of about a hundred species, this weedy genus is nearly cosmopolitan

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Chinnappa, C. C. 1985. Studies in the Stellaria longipes complex (Caryophyllaceae): Interspecific hybridization. I. Triploid meiosis. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 27: 318-321. Chinnappa, C. C. and J. K. Morton. 1976. Studies on the Stellaria longipes Goldie complex—Variation in wild populations. Rhodora 78: 488-501. Chinnappa, C. C. and J. K. Morton. 1984. Studies on the Stellaria longipes Goldie complex (Caryophyllaceae): Biosystematics. Syst. Bot. 9: 60-73. Chinnappa, C. C. and J. K. Morton. 1991. Studies on the Stellaria longipes complex (Caryophyllaceae): Taxonomy. Rhodora 93: 129-135. Emery, R. J. N. and C. C. Chinnappa. 1994. Morphological variation among members of the Stellaria longipes complex: S. longipes, S. longifolia, and S. porsildii (Caryophyllaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 190: 69-78. Hultén, E. 1943. Stellaria longipes and its allies. Bot. Not. 1943: 251-270. Morton, J. K. and R. K. Rabeler. 1989. Biosystematic studies on the Stellaria calycantha (Caryophyllaceae) complex. I. Cytology and cytogeography. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 121-127. Porsild, A. E. 1963. Stellaria longipes Goldie and its allies in North America. Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 186: 1-35. Rabeler, R. K. 1986. Revision of the Stellaria calycantha (Caryophyllaceae) Complex and Taxonomic Notes on the Genus. Ph.D. dissertation. Michigan State University.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Chickweed, stitchwort, starwort, stellaire [Latin stella, star, and -aria, pertaining to, alluding to shape of flower]

     Information From

    Caryophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • J http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • K Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).