Strychnos L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 189. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Strychnos L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000036956. Accessed on: 02 Dec 2020'

General Information

7. Strychnos L.

Por A.E. Brant y G. Davidse.

Bejucos, algunas veces arbustos o árboles pequeños, generalmente con zarcillos leñosos, engrosados, algunas especies sólo con espinas o con espinas y zarcillos. Inflorescencias axilares o terminales, en cimas o tirsos; corolas rotadas o simpétalas, el tubo de la corola 1 mm-2 cm, glabro a lanado, fragante, color crema a blanco. Hojas opuestas con líneas interpeciolares; láminas con nervadura paralela. Fruto en baya indehiscente, 1-9 cm de diámetro, globosa o ligeramente oblonga, la cáscara 0.5-10 mm de grosor, seca y endurecida en la madurez, la superficie lisa a áspera, semillas 1-numerosas. Aprox. 200 spp; aprox. 75 spp. en el Nuevo Mundo. Pantropical.

Bibliografía: Krukoff, B.A. Lloydia 35: 193-271 (1972).

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    STRYCHNOS L. *

    Arboles, arbustos, trepadoras o bejucos con floema intra-axilar; espinas y/o zarcillos a veces presentes. Hojas opuestas, palmatinervias o a veces pinnatinervias. Inflorescencia terminal o axilar, cimosa, flores 4 ó 5-meras; lobos del cáliz libres o unidos en la base; corola simpétala, lobos más largos o más cortos que el tubo; estambres insertos en la garganta de la corola; ovario súpero, 2-locular, óvulos 1–numerosos por lóculo, estilo 1, estigma capitado o 2-lobado. Fruto una baya 1–2-locular, globosa; semillas 1–numerosas.

    Género con ca 200 especies en los trópicos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo; 4 especies se conocen en Nicaragua y 2 adicionales se esperan encontrar.

    B.A. Krukoff. American species of Strychnos. Lloydia 35: 193–271. 1972.

    * El Sr. Alan Brant (MO) amablemente actualizó la clave y las descripciones.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Lianas or scandent shrubs, sometimes of considerable length, typically with coiled tendrils, sometimes also with spines, the branches opposite. Leaves op- posite, sessile or petiolate, the petioles connected by stipular lines (well-developed stipules usually not present); blades of various shapes, simple, entire, typically 3-5-plinerved, coriaceous or membranous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary or both, basically cymose. Flowers I, 5-merous or less frequently 4-merous, the pedicels 0-5 mm long; calyx-lobes exceeding the calyx-tube or sometimes equal to it, often imbricate basally, broadly ovate to linear; corolla yellow to pale green or white, salverform to virtually rotate, often carnosulous, the tube 0.1-2.5 cm long, the lobes valvate in bud, shorter than or equal to or longer than the corolla- tube, glabrous to very conspicuously pubescent internally; anthers included or exserted, glabrous or pilose, the filaments usually attached to the corolla-tube throughout most of their length; ovary subglobose or ovoid, 2-locular or sometimes 1-locular or incompletely 2-locular, the style unbranched, the stigma small, capitate, slightly 2-lobed. Fruit a berry, ovoid or globose, 1-9 cm in diameter, the shell very hard to somewhat fleshy, the pulp soft; seeds one to many, 0.5-2.5 cm long.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • Lianas o arbustos escandentes, los tallos con zarcillos espiralados (en CR) y a veces con espinas; ramitas jóvenes cilíndricas o comprimidas; estípulas usualmente de líneas interpeciolares. Hojas dísticas, sésiles o pe- cioladas; lámina entera, coriácea o membranácea, usualmente pubescente, típicamente 3 – 5-palmatinervada. Infls. terminales o axilares, cimosas. Fls. sésiles o con pedicelo hasta ca. 5 mm; sépalos (4)5-lobulados; corola amarilla, verdosa o blanca, hipocraterimorfa a rotada, carnosa, el tubo 5 – 25 mm, 4 ó 5-lobulado, los lóbulos glabros o conspicuamente pubescentes internamente; estambres 4 ó 5, insertos en la garganta de la corola, in- cluidos a exertos; ovario súpero, 1 ó 2-locular. Frs. abayados, 10 – 90 mm de diám., ovoides o globosos, el exo- carpo muy duro o semicarnoso, la pulpa suave; semillas 1–numerosas, 5 – 25 mm.

  • Provided by: [J].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Shrubs, trees, or lianas, armed or unarmed. If lianas then with axillary simple or double curled tendrils, sometimes with axillary thorns. Stipules often reduced to a straight ciliate ridge connecting petiole bases. Leaves petiolate to sometimes subsessile; leaf blade margin entire, basal veins 3--7, secondary veins 1--3 distinct pairs from or near base curved along margin in species represented. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, thyrsoid; bracts scalelike to sepal-like. Flowers pedicellate or sessile, 4- or 5-merous. Corolla rotate to salverform; lobes valvate in bud, spreading to reflexed when open. Stamens inserted at corolla throat to middle of corolla tube, exserted to included; filaments long to short, mostly filiform; anthers orbicular to narrowly oblong, base mostly slightly 2-cleft, introrse, 2-locular and separate. Ovary (1- or)2-locular, with few to many ovules per locule. Style cylindrical; stigma capitate or faintly 2-cleft. Berries orange or red when ripe in species represented, usually globose to ellipsoid, thin- to thick-walled, outside smooth to minutely warty, glabrous; pulp fleshy, usually orange; 1--15-seeded. Seeds ± flattened to saucer-shaped, circular to elliptic in outline; seed coat sericeous, felty, or scabrous and glabrous; embryo spatulate; endosperm horny; cotyledon leaflike.

  • Provided by: [K].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Morphology

      Erect or climbing shrubs, lianas, or trees.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
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      In each cell of a 2–celled ovary one axial placenta with 2 to about 50 ovules, attached to the middle of the septum.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      In a one–celled ovary one basal placenta which is mostly globose, with few (S. mellodora) or many ovules (S. spinosa).

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
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      Stamens exserted or included, inserted at the mouth of or in the corolla tube; filaments glabrous or sometimes hairy; anthers introrse, orbicular to narrowly oblong, cordate, deeply so, or less often sagittate at the base.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Pistil: ovary 2– or rarely 1–celled (S. mellodora, S. spinosa); stigma capitate, less often obscurely bilobed, or occasionally conical.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Calyx: sepals green or coloured approximately like the corolla, free or connate up to one–half of their length, equal, subequal, or sometimes unequal, imbricate, orbicular to linear, outside hairy or glabrous.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Corolla rotate to salver–shaped, white to yellowish, greenish, pale green, or rarely orange or ochraceous, thin at the base, always more or less thickened towards the lobes, on both sides variously hairy, papillose, or glabrous, but inside at the base always glabrous, sometimes with a corona at the mouth; lobes valvate in the bud, triangular to oblong, acute or subacute, entire, erect to recurved.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Inflorescence terminal, axillary, or both, thyrsoid, 1–many–flowered, shorter or longer than the leaves, lax or congested, sometimes sessile.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Flowers 4–5–merous, actinomorphic or with only sepals unequal.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Stipules mostly reduced to an often ciliate and straight rim connecting the petiole–bases.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Leaves opposite, sometimes decussate, or on the main axis sometimes ternate, those of a pair or whorl equal or subequal, petiolate or sometimes subsessile, mostly inserted on distinct leaf–cushions; blade variously shaped, orbicular to narrowly elliptic, mostly coriaceous, in the shade thinner, often larger, and more acute at the apex, entire; with 1–2(3) pairs of distinct secondary veins from or from above the base curved along the margin, usually not fully reaching the apex, anastomosing with the other veins or less often pinnately veined.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Endosperm horny, slightly diaphanous.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Sometimes some colleters above the bracts, on the base of the sepals, and near the base of the petioles.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Wall thin and soft in small fruits, thicker and brittle in (mature) larger (very hard in nearly mature!!).

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Branches armed with axillary or sometimes terminal simple straight or slightly recurved spines, unarmed, often lenticellate, rarely corky; branchlets terete, quadrangular, sometimes sulcate, especially when dry.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Pulp juicy, fleshy, often edible (S. cocculoides, S. madagascariensis, S. pungens, S. spinosa, and also in some small–fruited species).

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Wood mostly hard, usually with bark–islets; bark mostly thin, smooth or less often rough, in lianas often with large lenticels, sometimes thick and corky (S. cocculoides).

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Seeds large, 0·5–3(5) cm. long, variably shaped, generally disc–shaped to subglobose.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Trees: usually less than 10 m. high (savanna spp.), 10–35(40) m. (forest spp.); trunk 10–100 cm. in diam.; without tendrils, often with arching branches (iS. usambarensis, S. xantha).

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Testa thick and osseous to very thin and membranaceous, rough and scabrid–pubescent (only when thick) or smooth and sericeous to glabrous.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Lianas with curled tendrils, solitary or arranged in 1–3 pairs above each other on short branches, in the axils of small bracts or — only if solitary — sometimes in the axils of ordinary leaves.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Fruit a berry, 1–2–celled, globose or nearly so, mostly yellow to red, less often green when mature, sometimes blue–black (S. potatorum), immature often glaucous, glabrous, subtended by the persisting calyx, 0·8–18 cm. in diameter, 1–45–seeded.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Seeds few to numerous, flattened or globose; endosperm copious and hard; embryo small.

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Stamens 4 or 5; filaments short but anthers usually exserted

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Ovary 2-locular; style moderately long, undivided; stigma usually capitate; ovules few to many

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Fruit a drupe or a berry with a hard rind

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Trees or shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing with spines or hooked tendrils

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Cymes axillary or terminal, simple or panicled

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Leaves decussate, entire, 3–7-nerved from near the base; stipules absent or represented by an interpetiolar ridge

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Corolla campanulate or salver-shaped; lobes 4 or 5, valvate in the bud

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Calyx 4- or 5-lobed, sometimes very deeply

    • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      Arbustes'dressés ou sarmenteux, lianes à vrilles recourbées en crochets et solitaires ou par 1-3 paires superposées sur de courts rameaux, ou arbres; rameaux généralement inermes, parfois pourvus d'épines ou d'aiguillons.'Feuilles'opposées, parfois décussées ou ternées, pétiolées ou parfois subsessiles; stipules rarement présentes, le plus souvent réduites à une ligne interpétiolaire souvent ciliée; limbe à 1-2 paires de nervures secondaires partant de la base ou un peu au-dessus et courbées-ascendantes le long des marges.'Inflorescences'terminales et/ou axillaires, lâches ou contractées, parfois sessiles.'Fleurs'4-5-mères, actinomorphes ; calice souvent sous-tendu par 1-2 bractéoles semblables aux sépales; sépales verts ou de couleur semblable à celle de la corolle, égaux, subégaux ou parfois inégaux, imbriqués, généralement plus courts que la corolle, orbiculaires à linéaires; corolle rotacée à hypocratériforme, généralement épaissie vers les lobes, à préfloraison valvaire; étamines exsertes ou incluses, insérées à l'intérieur du tube corollin ou vers le sommet de celui-ci; anthères introrses, basifixes, profondément cordées ou parfois sagittées à la base, à 2 thèques parallèles ou parfois divergentes à la base, déhiscentes par une fente longitudinale; ovaire 2-loculaire à 1 placenta axile par loge, inséré au milieu de la cloison, ou plus rarement 1-loculaire à 1 placenta basal; style simple, inclus ou exsert, persistant.'Fruits': baies 1-2-loculaires, sous-tendues par le calice persistant; pulpe juteuse, charnue, souvent comestible.'Graines à endosperme corné, légèrement diaphane; embryon droit, enveloppé par l'endosperme; cotylédons ± cordés, foliacés et nervurés.\n\t\t\t\tGenre pantropical comprenant environ 200 espèces, dont 75 en Afrique et à Madagascar, une seule d'entre elles étant à la fois commune à l'Afrique et à l'Asie. Pour la Flore : 41 espèces; 4 autres espèces, présentes dans des régions voisines et susceptibles d'exister dans l'aire de la Flore, ont été introduites dans les clés des espèces.

    • Provided by: [G].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 18
      • ]. 

      Habit

      Lianas shrubs

    • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
    • Distribution

      A tropical and subtropical genus of about 235 species. Representatives occur on every continent but Europe, the greatest percentage of species probably occurring in Africa. Approximately 64 species are known in the New World; five (six?) species occur in Panama.

    • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
    • Included Species

       Information From

      Loganiaceae
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      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
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      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
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      Flora de Nicaragua
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      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • G http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
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      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • H
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      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
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      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
      Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
      • J Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
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      • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).