Theobroma L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 782. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Theobroma L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000038157. Accessed on: 25 Oct 2021'

General Information

Trees. Leaves alternate, large and entire. Inflorescence 1-flowered or cymose, usually on trunk or major branches. Flowers bisexual, small and perfect. Calyx 5-lobed, divided nearly to base. Petals 5, lower part deeply concave, middle part becoming narrow, upper spatulate. Stamens in 5 groups of 1-3, alternate with staminodes; filaments connate at base into tube; staminodes 5. Ovary sessile, 5-celled; ovules many per locule; stigma 5-lobed. Fruit large, drupaceous. Seeds many, embedded in pulp; cotyledons fleshy; endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    THEOBROMA L.; Cacao Mill.; Tribroma O.F. Cook

    Arboles o arbustos; plantas hermafroditas. Hojas simples, obovadas, oblongas u ovales, grandes, abruptamente acuminadas, enteras o subenteras, pinnatinervias. Cimas axilares o sobre prominencias del tronco, pauci- o multifloras, flores actinomorfas pequeñas; sépalos 5; pétalos 5, rosados, rojos, amarillos, uña cuculada adosada al tubo estaminal, lámina redondeada o espatulada; tubo estaminal cilíndrico, estambres 10–15, en 5 haces 2–3-anteríferos, anteras 2-tecas; estaminodios 5, subulados, linear-oblongos u obovados, erectos o reflexos, tan largos como los pétalos o más largos. Fruto grande, abayado o drupáceo, ovoide, elipsoidal o cilíndrico-oblongo, liso o acostillado, epicarpo más o menos grueso, carnoso o leñoso; semillas numerosas recubiertas por una capa pulposa que las une entre sí.

    Género neotropical distribuido desde el sur de México hasta la cuenca amazónica, 22 especies, varias de ellas se cultivan; 5 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua. Las semillas son de gran valor económico, las de T. cacao se usan comercialmente para la preparación del chocolate y para la extracción de varios productos secundarios; varias otras especies son aprovechadas localmente para el mismo fin, o para la preparación de bebidas refrescantes.

    J. Cuatrecasas. Cacao and its allies: A taxonomic revision of the genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35: 379–614. 1964.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Trees with primary branching 3- or 5-verticillate; further branching alternate; apical growth of the stem limited to the production of a whorl (jorquette) of 3-5 spreading, verticillate branches; continuing growth of the stem sympodial, by ad- ventitious, subterminal shoots (below jorquette) (called chupons) or by pseudo-- apical shoots (above jorquette) from buds axillary to the terminal verticillate branches. Leaves simple, long-petiolate and varied in phyllotaxy on the primary stem, short-petiolate and distichous on the lateral branches, penninerved or sub- palmatinerved, persistent, coriaceous or subcoriaceous; pluricellular trichomes usually as stellate hairs, rarely simple, sometimes glandular hairs. Inflorescences dichasial or monochasial, axillary or on reduced, tuberculiform branchlets on trunk and larger branches; pedicels articulate to bracteate peduncles. Flowers her- maphrodite; sepals 5, almost free and spreading or more or less united; petals 5, contorted, each one strangulated in 2 halves; lower part, corresponding to the claw, rigid and strongly veined with the shape of a hood; upper part a flat lamina, articu- lated to the inflexed apex of the claw; androecium in 2 whorls, united at base; outer whorl with 5 sterile, petaloid or linear staminodes opposite to the sepals; inner whorl with 5 fertile stamens opposite to the petals, the filaments short, shortly 2- to 3-branched, each branch with one anther; anthers hidden inside the petal- hoods, bithecate, the thecae unilocular and longitudinally dehiscent; pollen grains 3-colporate, peritreme, suboblate; gynoecium 5-carpellar, the ovary ovoid, pentag- onal, 5-celled with axile placentation; ovules many, in two rows, anatropous with two integuments and dorsal raphe; styles 5, free or more or less united, filiform; stigmas apical, short, acute. Fruit large, subbaccate or subdrupaceous, indehiscent, the pericarp fleshy or hard and partly woody or coriaceous, the vascular axis thin and vanishing; seeds usually in 5 rows, each seed surrounded by a thick, fibrosc, pulpy tissue filling the cavity at maturity, ovoid, ellipsoid or amygdaloid, the epi- sperm double, thick, subcoriaceous, the other layer with a trichomatic and gelat- inous epiderm developing into a thick, pulpy envelope; embryo straight; cotyledons thick, strongly plicate-corrugate; endosperm reduced to a filmy membrane covering the cotyledons; germination epigeous or hypogeous.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
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    Morphology

    Arbustes'à petits arbres.'Feuilles'alternes, simples, pétiolées.'Inflorescences'en glomérules cauliflores ou sur le vieux bois, ou parfois fleurs solitaires.'Fleurs'☿; sépales 5; pétales 5, cucullés-appendiculés, à appendice apical spatulé; tube staminal court, à 5 filets portant chacun 1-3 anthères; phalanges alternant avec des staminodes ± longs; ovaire supère, sessile, à 5 loges multiovulées; ovules axillaires sur 2 rangs; style filiforme.'Fruits'bacciformes puis devenant ligneux, indéhiscents, 5-lobés, 5-loculaires.'Graines ∞, immergées dans une pulpe mucilagineuse, exalbuminées; cotylédons épais.\n\t\t\t\tGenre néotropical groupant environ 15 espèces dont 1 cultivée dans les régions tropicales humides.

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Habit

    Trees

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    A neotropical genus of 22 species of small or medium-sized trees, many of them endemics, usually growing in the tropical rain forests.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
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     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Malvaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).