Urtica L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 983. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Nettle, ortie [Latin urtica, nettle; derived from Latin uro, to burn]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Urtica L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000039887. Accessed on: 21 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs, rarely subshrubs, annual or perennial, armed with stinging hairs. Stems often 4-angled. Leaves opposite; stipules often persistent, interpetiolar, lateral, free or connate; leaf blade 3-5(-7)-veined, margin dentate or incised-lobed; cystoliths often punctiform, sometimes short botuliform. Inflorescences in axillary pairs; glomerules forming spikes, racemes, panicles, or rarely capitula, unisexual (plants monoecious or dioecious) or androgynous. Male flowers: perianth lobes 4, imbricate; stamens 4; rudimentary ovary cuplike. Female flowers: perianth lobes 4, free or connate, enlarged in fruit, enclosing achene, strongly unequal, outer 2 (lateral) smaller than inner 2 (dorsal-ventral) lobes. Ovary straight; stigma sessile or on short style, penicillate-capitate. ovule orthotropous. Achene straight, compressed, enclosed by persistent perianth. Seed erect, with scanty endosperm; cotyledons suborbicular, fleshy.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Herbs , annual or perennial, with stinging and nonstinging hairs on same plant. Stems simple or branched, erect, ascending, or sprawling. Leaves opposite; stipules present. Leaf blades elliptic, lanceolate, ovate, or orbiculate, margins dentate to serrate; cystoliths rounded or ± elongate. Inflorescences axillary, lax, of cymes arranged in racemes or panicles. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate flowers in loose to tight clusters in separate inflorescences or intermixed in same inflorescence on same or different plants; bracts narrowly triangular to lanceolate, lacking hooked hairs. Staminate flowers: tepals 4, distinct, equal; stamens 4; pistillode cuplike. Pistillate flowers: tepals 4, distinct, inner 2 equal to achene, outer 2 smaller, without hooked hairs; staminodes absent; style absent; stigma tufted, persistent or deciduous. Achenes sessile, laterally compressed, ovoid or deltoid, loosely enclosed by inner tepals. x = 12, 13.

    • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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      17. Urtica L. N.v.: Ortiga.

      Por M.Weigend y A.K.Monro.

      Hierbas erectas, anuales o perennes; tallos con tricomasurticantes prominentes y tricomas simples menores, no eliminando látex acuosoal corte. Hojas opuestas, los márgenes dentados; indumento de dos tipos detricomas, los tricomas urticantes con una base pluricelular y tricomas simples,los tricomas generalmente adpresos sobre la superficie superior de la hoja yerectos sobre la superficie inferior de la hoja, los cistolitos puntiformes uoblongos; estípulas 4 por nudo, dispuestas en cualquiera de los lados delpecíolo, simples, persistentes. Inflorescencias unisexuales o bisexuales,seudoespigadas o aglomeradas, diversamente ramificadas o sin ramificar;pedicelos envueltos por bractéolas inconspicuas. Flores estaminadas 4-meras.Tépalos pistilados 4, subiguales en flor, marcadamente desiguales en aqueniocon dos tépalos grandes y dos pequeños. Aquenios marcadamente comprimidos,anchamente ovoides. Aprox. 50-70 spp. Subcosmopolita.

      Urtica tiene la mayor diversidad de especies enEuropa y el este de Asia. La taxonomía de Urtica en todo el mundoes compleja y en parte aun no resuelta debido a la escasez de caracteresflorales y del aquenio y a la variabilidad vegetativa. Las pocas especiesencontradas en Mesoamérica son, sin embargo, relativamente fáciles decaracterizar.

      Bibliografía: Henning, T. et al. Phytotaxa 162: 61-83 (2014). Weddell, H.A. Prodr. 16(1): 39-67 (1869). Woodland, D.W. Syst. Bot. 7: 282-290 (1982). Woodland, D.W. et al. Canad. J. Bot. 54: 374-383(1976).

    • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
      • Source: [
      • 9
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      • ]. 

      Urtica dioica L. ssp. dioica, Sp. Pl. 984. 1753.Hierbas anuales ca. 0.4 m de alto, tallos con two types of tricomas, tricomas presumed to be urticantes, bulbous based/stalked, clear above stalk, straight and spreading to curving upward, ca. 1—1.5 mm and smaller trichomes curving and opaque; plantas dioecious. Hojas opposite, those at a node similar in size and shape, lanceolate, 2.5—4.2 cm de largo y 1.2--2 cm de ancho, ápice long- acuminado, base nearly truncada, sub-cordate, margen gruesamente dentado con 3--6 dientes/cm, cistolitos punctiform, visibles sólo en la haz, tricomas urticantes and non-urticating dispersos en la superficie de la haz y sobre los nervios en el envés, nervadura strongly palmately 3-nerved from base, sometimes with an additional basal pair of veins, with 2 or 3 additional pairs of lateral veins; estípulas free, connivent interpetiolarly. Inflorescencias two per node, spiciform but branching at base, 1.5—2.5 cm, flowers in sessile close set glomerules, with tricomas urticating and non-urticating numerous; flores masculinas not seen; flores femeninas con perianto 4-partido, the larger 2 enclosing the ovary, ca 0.75 mm, ovados, estigma sessile and penicillate. Aquenio not seen.Known in Nicaragua from one collection (Rueda 18139, HULE), weed at finca, Estelí, 850 m, fl jun, fr not seen; native to Old World, now cosmopolitan in temperate regions. The genus is found world wide and has an estimated 30 species. The above description based on sole Nicaraguan collection seen. Staminate inflorescences are similar to the pistillate; the staminate perianth is also 4-parted and ca. 1—1.25 mm wide. Urtica dioica differs from U. leptophylla Kunth (Guatemala, Costa Rica to Bolivia and Venezuela) most markedly in its free stipules vs. in U. leptophylla stipules interpetiolarly connate for at least half their length. D. W. Woodland. Biosystematics of the perennial North American taxa of Urtica. II. Taxonomy. Syst. Bot. 7: 282--290. 1982.

    • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
      • Source: [
      • 10
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      "Dioecious or monoecious; male fls with 4 subequal sep, 4 stamens, and vestigial ovary; sep of the female fls unequal, the outer 2 small and inconspicuous; stigma capitate-tufted; fr a lenticular achene enclosed by the 2 inner sep; herbs with opposite lvs, ± beset with stinging bristles; fls minute, in panicles, spikes, or head-like clusters from the upper axils. 25, widespread."

    • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
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      Morphology

      Leaves opposite, petiolate, simple; stipules lateral, free, or interpetiolar, fused; cystoliths punctiform

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Stems with stinging and sometimes stiff hairs

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
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      Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious or dioecious

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Female flowers: tepals free, in 2 ± unequal pairs; staminodes absent; ovary ovoid, laterally compressed, symmetrical; stigma sessile, penicillate

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Achene enclosed in or released from the persistent perianth, lenticular with a ± raised central area on each face.

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
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      Male flowers: tepals free, in 2 subequal pairs; rudimentary ovary present

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
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      Inflorescences axillary, mostly shortly pedunculate, often paired in each leaf-axil, bisexual or unisexual lax cymose panicles

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Flowers unisexual, 4-merous, usually clustered in small cymose glomerules

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Herbes , dioïques ou monoïques, urticantes, à feuilles opposées.'Fleurs disposées en feux-épis ou capitules axillaires; périgone 4-mère, à segments égaux entre eux dans les fleurs ♂, les deux extérieurs plus étroits et plus courts que les intérieurs dans les fleurs ♀; étamines 4; stigmate souvent sessile en forme de pinceau très ouvert. Akènes comprimés entourés du périgone.\n\t\t\t\tEnviron 40 espèces de climat tempéré (dans les montagnes en régions tropicales), 1 au Congo belge.

    • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      • Source: [
      • 12
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      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Nettle, ortie [Latin urtica, nettle; derived from Latin uro, to burn]

       Information From

      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • A Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • B
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flore d'Afrique Centrale
      https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
      • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • E Flora of North America Association
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Urticaceae
      • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).