Vigna 


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Vigna . Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000040261. Accessed on: 05 Aug 2020'

General Information

VIGNA Savi

Por Alfonso Delgado-Salinas y Leticia Torres-Colín

Hierbas anuales o perennes, trepadoras, rastreras o algunas veces erectas, subarbustivas, raíces a veces tuberosas, frecuentemente lignificadas, raramente fibrosas, indumento sin tricomas uncinados. Folíolos 3, mucronados en el ápice, redondeados a truncados en la base, enteros o lobados, membranosos a coriáceos, el terminal ligeramente más largo que los laterales, estipelas generalmente lineares a ovado-lanceoladas, frecuentemente extendidas; pecíolos generalmente más largos que el raquis, ambos canaliculados, estípulas triangulares a lanceoladas, truncadas o con apéndices en el punto de inserción (biauriculadas o peltadas), ascendentes, extendidas o retrorsas. Inflorescencias pseudoracimos axilares, generalmente paucifloras con protuberancias nectaríferas en los nudos, con ejes rectos o flexuosos, pedicelos en general más cortos que el cáliz, arqueados, torcidos o erectos, brácteas primarias ovadas a lanceoladas, generalmente caducas, bractéolas adnadas al cáliz, pequeñas, iguales o más grandes que el cáliz, generalmente caducas, flores generalmente amarillas, lilas, purpúreas o blancas; cáliz generalmente campanulado, verde, con 5 dientes, los 2 superiores generalmente connados, emarginados, los laterales e inferior triangulares a lanceolados, a veces largos y foliáceos; estandarte generalmente reflexo (90°) en la antesis, oblongo a orbicular, frecuentemente más ancho que largo, simétrico o asimétrico, emarginado en el ápice, plegado y generalmente engrosado en el punto de doblez, con mácula generalmente amarilla, con 2 apéndices basales semejando una solapa, alas obovadas, generalmente más largas que los otros pétalos, redondeadas, auriculadas en la porción basal, frecuentemente engrosadas y plegadas, quilla incurvada, a veces con el ápice o rostro sigmoide o espiralado; estambres 10, diadelfos, el vexilar libre, con una giba basal, tubo estaminal generalmente con 4 anteras dorsifijas y 5 basifijas, anteras dehiscentes por las 2 aberturas; ovario con cinto nectarífero en la base, generalmente con más de 6 óvulos, estilo distalmente engrosado y con una brocha polínica, a veces el estilo se extiende después del estigma conformando una punta, gancho o caperuza, estigma generalmente subterminal. Legumbres lineares a oblongas, rectas o falcadas, sin septos, comprimidas o cilíndricas, dehiscentes, péndulas, horizontales o erectas, frecuentemente rostradas, valvas delgadas a coriáceas, a veces se ennegrecen al madurar; semillas reniformes a cilíndricas, lisas, en tonos de café, hilo generalmente alargado. Germinación epigea e hipogea.

Género con ca 150 especies, en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Su taxonomía dista mucho de ser satisfactoria y sólo algunas especies de origen asiático y africano tienen importancia económica. La clave contempla 15 especies, 12 de ellas se conocen en Nicaragua y 3 más se esperan encontrar. Además, Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek (usada en alimentos asiáticos) y V. umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H. Ohashi (escapada) probablemente se cultivan en Nicaragua. Estas especies se distinguen por sus flores amarillas y quillas incurvadas con un espolón en la cara lateral izquierda, frutos y semillas cilíndricas, éstas últimas con hilos largos.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Vines or herbs, rarely shrubby, mostly with sturdy rootstocks, lacking unci- nate hairs. Leaves pinnate or subdigitate trifoliolate, rarely 1-foliate, mostly en- tire; stipels, nervate, mostly blunt; glabrate stipules sometimes produced below the insertion, sometimes bilobate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, pseudor- acemes or subcapitate, the rachis contracted, the nodes glandular; bracts and bracteoles caducous; pedicels 1-2 per node, mostly shorter than the calyx. Flow- ers yellowish or white, sometimes with some purple or violet; calyx 2 lipped, the upper lip emarginate, the lowest tooth of the lower lip longest; standard orbicular, auriculate, sometimes appendaged on the dorsal face, the wings about equalling the standard and keel, the keel apically curved up to 1 spiral, often oblique; vexillary stamen free, the anthers uniform; style apically thickened and barbate on the inner face, caducous, sometimes with a curved beak. Legume linear to oblong, turgid or compressed, straight or curved, not septate; seeds reniform or quadrate, the hilum short or long, a well developed aril sometimes present. Vigna embraces about 150 species of tropical regions of both hemispheres. In Panama most species have flowers at least partly yellow, but in other countries some species have violet or purple flowers. A number of species of Vigna are important food plants for man, e.g. V. unguiculata, and species are sometimes cultivated for cattle fodder.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
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    Twining or erect herbs, rarely subshrubs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules peltate or basally spurred, 2-lobed, cordate, or truncate. Racemes axillary or terminal, nodes of rachis often thickened and glandular. Bracts and bracteoles deciduous. Calyx 5-toothed, 2-lipped. Corolla yellow, blue, or purple; standard suborbicular, base appendaged; wings shorter than standard; keel subequal to wings, incurved, not beaked or produced into an incurved or spirally twisted beak. Stamens diadelphous; anthers uniform. Ovary sessile; style filiform, upper part thickened, bearded or hirsute lengthwise inside; stigma oblique. Legumes linear or linear-oblong, terete or flat. Seeds reniform or subquadrate; hilum short or elongate, with or without aril.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Hierbas (a veces subarbustivas) o bejucos rastreros o trepadores o lianas, las ramitas glabras o variadamente pubescentes (pero sin tricomas uncinados), sin espinas; estípulas a veces auriculadas, apendiculadas o peltadas. Hojas imparipinnadamente compuestas; pecíolo relativamente largo, sin nectarios glandulares; raquis sin nectarios glandulares; folíolos 3, el terminal más largo que los laterales, mucronatos en el ápice, a veces lobulados. Infls. axilares, pseudorracemosas o de 1 fl. solitaria, los nudos florales con engrosamientos nectaríferos, con brácteas (generalmente deciduas) y bractéolas (normalmente persistentes) muy pequeñas. Fls. blancas a amarillas o moradas a azules, zigomorfas, pediceladas (el pedicelo más corto que el cáliz); sépalos connatos en un cáliz campanulado, 5-dentado, los 2 dientes superiores fusionados y los laterales e inferiores a veces foliáceos y largos, deltados o lanceolados; pétalos 5, variadamente coherentes, el estandarte reflexo, orbicular, auriculado en la base, las alas del mismo tamaño que el estandarte, la quilla recta o curvada a sigmoide ó 1–7X espiralada; estambres 10, los filamentos connatos (excepto con 1 separado); anteras sin glándulas. Frs. erectos a horizontales o péndulos (por torsión del pedicelo), verdosos a amarillentos o pardos a ferrugíneos, lineares o (rara vez) oblongos, rectos o falcados, cilíndricos o subcilíndricos a biconvexos o aplanados, sin septos, subcoriáceos a coriáceos, dehiscentes; semillas numerosas, blancas a amarillentas o pardas a rojas o negras (en CR) y (a veces) moteadas, reniformes a cilíndricas o cuadrangulares, con arilo obsoleto o bien desarrollado.

  • Provided by: [E].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
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    • 10
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    Morphology

    Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate, thickness usually slightly less than width, usually cream-coloured, cream-coloured in combination with grey, mottled and speckled patterns, or black; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually excentric, often 3-pronged.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Pods linear or linear-oblong, usually terete, rarely flattened (V. macrorhyncha), with sutures not raised (except V. macrorhyncha), straight or curved, not septate (seeds are separated by a spongy tissue, not as woody as in Dysolobium and Pachyrhizus); style caducous.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary 1–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate beak (except in subgenus Haydonia); stigma completely lateral or oblique.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes with a pair of joined glands below each anther (in subgenus Haydonia); anthers uniform.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple inside (internal face of standard, external face of wings), greenish outside (external face of standard), all petals of subequal length; standard glabrous (except in V. heterophylla), emarginate, usually slightly wider than long and symmetrical, with inflexed auricles and appendages on the internal face, less often without appendages; appendages of the standard are based on a U-shaped pattern with one on each half of the standard, but the pattern is rarely complete; it can be reduced to the central part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel and very close together (central position), or sometimes joined and appearing V- or X-shaped (V.luteola or V. monophylla for example); it can be reduced to the lateral part of the U with the appendages appearing parallel but spaced apart (lateral position) (as in V. unguiculata); it can be reduced to the basal part of the U with the appendages appearing perpendicular to the standard axis (V. comosa); keel whitish except for the beak (if there is a beak), usually fused on the upper side, truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 180° (V. radiata), sometimes with a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal (V. vexillata for example).

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Inflorescence axillary, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1–many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels, flowers paired at each node; bracts and bracteoles deciduous, usually similar in shape and nervation; pedicel shorter than or as long as the calyx, extending or not as the pod matures.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Pollen triporate, exine coarsely reticulate (except in subgenus Haydonia).

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate, 1-foliolate or simple; leaflets entire, venation usually reticulate, rarely with secondary nerves parallel (V. multinervis) or tertiary nerves parallel; stipules usually bilobed or spurred at the base, sometimes peltate, rarely truncate; stipels persistent, rarely absent.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Climbing, twining, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks, without hooked hairs (as in Phaseolus).

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Leaves pinnately, more rarely subdigitately, 3-foliolate or 1-foliolate; stipules truncate, bilobed or spurred at the base or sometimes quite peltate; stipels ± persistent, rarely absent

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, falsely racemose or flowers in dense 1-many-flowered subumbellate clusters or fasciculate; rhachis usually thickened and glandular at the point of insertion of the pedicels; bracts and bracteoles ± deciduous

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Calyx 5-lobed, 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed,the middle lobe usually the longest; upper lip of 2 lobes completely or partly united

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Corolla small or medium-sized, yellow, blue or purple; standard with inflexed auricles and 2–4 appendages or sometimes a single structure on the internal face, less often without appendages; keel truncate, obtuse or conspicuously beaked, sometimes the beak incurved through up to 360° (in some species the keel is twisted and untidy-looking and in others there is a distinct conical pocket on the left-hand petal)

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Vexillary stamen free; 5 shorter filaments (including the vexillary one) sometimes (in subgen. Haydonia) with a pair of joined glands below each anther; anthers uniform

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Ovary 3–many-ovuled; style with tenuous lower part obsolete to quite long, filiform or flattened, upper part thickened and cartilaginous, straight or curved, upper portion barbate or hirsute on the internal face, sometimes produced beyond the stigma to form a short to long subulate or rarely flattened or capitate beak; stigma completely lateral, oblique or rarely ± terminal

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Pods linear or linear-oblong, cylindrical or flattened, straight or ± curved, usually ± septate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Seeds mostly reniform or quadrate; hilum small or elongate; aril obsolete to well developed, usually eccentric, often 3-pronged.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Climbing, prostrate or erect herbs or subshrubs, rarely small shrubs, mostly from woody or tuberous rootstocks

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Vines or herbs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Cytology

    Chromosome count usually 2n=22, rarely 2n=20.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Fabaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).