Xylosma G. Forst.
  • Fl. Ins. Austr. 72. 1786. (Oct-Nov 1786)
  • [Greek xylon, wood, and osme, odor, alluding to fragrant wood of some Pacific species]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Xylosma G. Forst. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000041044. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2021'

General Information

Shrubs or small trees, usually dioecious, rarely polygamous; trunk and branches usually spiny. Leaves alternate, stipulate, usually petiolate; leaf blade pinnate-veined, margin serrate, rarely entire, teeth glandular. Flowers hypogynous, small, in axillary fascicles, short racemes, or panicles, rudiments of opposite sex usually absent; bracts small, persistent or caducous; pedicels articulate at base. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate, free or connate at base only. Petals absent. Disk extrastaminal, or in female flowers extragynoecial, comprised of several small closely set or connate glands (usually in staminate flowers) or annular (often in pistillate flowers). Staminate flowers: stamens ca. 10 to many, exserted; filaments free, filiform; anthers small, basifixed, sometimes apiculate by extension of connective. Pistillate flowers: ovary superior, 1-loculed; placentas 2(-6), each with 2 to many ovules; styles 2 or 3(or 4), often very short, joined in lower part only or completely joined to form a single style column, or styles absent; stigmas semilunate to U-shaped. Berry small, ca. 1 cm or less, pericarp thinly leathery, blackish when dried; disk and calyx often persistent at base; styles and/or stigmas persistent at apex. Seeds few.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Shrubs [trees], often ± heterophyllous, not clonal; branching sympodial. Stems usually spinose, sometimes unarmed, spines simple and/or compound. Leaves usually persistent, sometimes ± deciduous (sometimes congested at apices of relatively short lateral branches); stipules absent; petiole not glandular. Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate [racemose], 1 or 2 per axil. Pedicels articulate. Flowers: sepals 4-6 (± persistent, connate proximally, imbricate); disc lobed (lobes extrastaminal, ± confluent [distinct]); stamens [8-]16-24[-50+] (usually exserted); filaments distinct; ovary 2- or 3-carpellate; style indistinct [relatively short]; stigmas 2 or 3, expanded, obcompressed, ± lobed. Fruits baccate. Seeds: aril absent. x = 10.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    XYLOSMA G. Forst.

    Por Amy Pool

    Arbustos o árboles, tronco, ramas y ramitas armadas con acúleos o espinas simples o ramificadas o inermes; plantas generalmente dioicas, raramente monoicas, hermafroditas o polígamas. Hojas alternas y espiraladas o de apariencia fasciculada en pseudo-ramas, generalmente dentado-glandulares, sin marcas pelúcidas, pinnatinervias, glándulas basales ausentes; pecioladas, exestipuladas. Inflorescencias racimos cortos frecuentemente reducidos a fascículos o raramente flores solitarias (a veces inflorescencias aparentemente fasciculadas tienen el raquis contraído y oculto por brácteas, las cuales producen hojas en sus axilas, estructura denominada 'pseudo-rama"), axilares, pedunculadas o sésiles, brácteas pequeñas, libres, flores blancas, verdosas o amarillentas; sépalos 4 ó 5 (–7), imbricados, casi libres, ciliados (en Nicaragua), subpersistentes; pétalos ausentes; disco extrastaminal, con pocos a varios lobos o glándulas carnosas más o menos fusionadas formando un anillo crenado y suculento; flores estaminadas con estambres hipóginos, indeterminados, filamentos libres, ovario rudimentario ausente; flores pistiladas con estaminodios raramente presentes, ovario súpero, estilo simple o brevemente 2 (–5)-fido, estigma(s) dilatado o lobado. Fruto una baya; semillas generalmente pocas, en Nicaragua (1) 2–5 (–7), 2.5–5 mm de largo, glabras, sin arilo.

    Un género con ca 95 especies en América tropical y subtropical, Asia–Malasia e islas del Pacífico; 11 especies se conocen en Nicaragua. X. quichense Donn. Sm. se encuentra en Centroamérica al norte y al sur de Nicaragua, sin embargo parece estar restringida a elevaciones sobre 1500 m. Se caracteriza por su flor estaminada con sépalos totalmente glabros y no ciliados que contrastan con el raquis híspido.

    T.B. Croat. Flacourtiaceae new to Panama: Casearia and Xylosma. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 484–490. 1975; T.B. Croat. Xylosma. Flora of Barro Colorado Island. 628–631. 1978; A. Pool. Xylosma longipedicellata (Flacourtiaceae), a new species from Nicaragua. Novon 7: 75–76. 1997.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or small trees, often with axillary spines, the branchlets commonly lenticellate. Leaves alternate, sometimes borne in fascicles, usually short-petiolate, estipulate, the blade often ? coriaceous, usually glandular-dentate, penninerved, rarely entire-margined, without pellucid-glands. Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate or contracted-racemose, rarely racemose. Flowers small, dioecious or rarely polyga- mous; pedicels articulated above the base, the bracts minute; sepals 4-5(-6), imbri- cate, usually scale-like, slightly connate at the base, often ciliolate along the mar- gins, usually persistent; petals none; stamens oo (8-35 in Panamanian spp.), usually surrounded by an annular or glandular, fleshy disc, the filaments free, filiform, short- to usually long-exserted, the anthers minute, basifixed, extrose, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary sessile, inserted on an annular disc, 1-locular, with 2-3, rarely 4-6, parietal placentas, each placenta with 2, sometimes 4-6, ovules, the style entire or ? divided, sometimes very short, the stigmas scarcely dilated to dilated; rudi- mentary ovary wanting in male flowers. Fruits baccate, rather dry, indehiscent, surmounted by the persistent style, the pericarp rather thin-coriaceous, the seeds 2-8, + angular by mutual pressure, the testa thin; endosperm copious; embryo large, the coyledons broad.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Sufrútices, arbustos o árboles, hermafroditas o (más frecuente) dioicos, usualmente con espinas ramificadas (en el tronco) y/o simples (usualmente en las ramitas); estípulas ausentes. Hojas alternas, la lámina entera (raramente) o glandular-aserrada, de otra forma sin glándulas, sin puntos translúcidos, pinnadamente nervada.  Infls. axilares, generalmente de fls. fasciculadas o cortamente racemosas. Fls. bisexuales (raramente) o unisexuales, con un disco anular o de lóbulos o glándulas ± separados, carnosos; sépalos 4 ó 5(6), ligeramente connatos en la base, imbricados, a veces ciliados; pétalos ausentes; estambres (fls. estaminadas o bisexuales) 8–numerosos, hipóginos, los filamentos separados, filiformes; estaminodios (fls. pistiladas) a veces presentes; ovario (fls. pistiladas y bisexuales) súpero; estilo simple o dividido; estigmas dilatados. Frs. abayados, secos; semillas generalmente pocas, sin arilo.

  • Provided by: [B].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Shrubs or small trees

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 100 species throughout the tropics, but absent in Africa.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Kiger, R. W. 2001. Xylosma. In: R. McVaugh and W. R. Anderson, eds. 1974+. Flora Novo-Galiciana: A Descriptive Account of the Vascular Plants of Western Mexico. 8+ vols. Ann Arbor. Vol. 3, pp. 328-334. Sleumer, H. 1980b. Xylosma. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 98+ nos. New York. No. 22, pp. 128-182.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [Greek xylon, wood, and osme, odor, alluding to fragrant wood of some Pacific species]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Salicaceae
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).