Zanthoxylum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 270. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Zanthoxylum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000041155. Accessed on: 25 Nov 2020'

General Information

ZANTHOXYLUM L.

Por Duncan M. Porter

Arbustos o árboles, raramente escandentes, perennifolios o deciduos, troncos y ramas a menudo armados de acúleos, ramitas con acúleos pequeños o inermes, corteza y madera aromática; plantas dioicas. Hojas alternas, imparipinnadas o paripinnadas, rarely unifoliolate and appearing simple, folíolos opuestos a alternos, con margen entero a crenado, frecuentemente inequilátero, a veces con numerosas escamas peltadas diminutas; pecíolo y raquis a veces alados, inermes o aculeados. Inflorescencias axilares a subterminales o terminales, generalmente paniculadas, a veces corimbosas, racemosas o espiciformes, rara vez en brotes laterales cortos, flores pequeñas, actinomorfas, blancas o amarillo-verdosas o rojas; sépalos 3–5, libres o connados, usually persistent, or sepals and petals poorly differentiated and deciduous; pétalos 3–5, libres, imbricados o valvados; estambres 3–5, rudimentarios o ausentes en las flores pistiladas, filamentos libres y sin apéndices, anteras elípticas a ovadas; pistilos 1–5, sésiles o estipitados, libres o connados, rudimentarios o ausentes en las flores estaminadas. Frutos de 1–5 folículos, folículos libres o connados, 3–6 mm de diámetro, sésiles o estipitados, coriáceos, punteado-glandulares, cada uno con 1 semilla; semillas generalmente negras y lustrosas.

Género con más de 200 especies, principalmente pantropicales, pero unas pocas en las zonas templadas de Norte y Sudamérica y el este de Asia; probablemente 50 especies se encuentran en Centroamérica, 16 de ellas en Nicaragua. The account of this genus was modified by A. Pool in November 2009, taking into account the thesis work of Reynel (1995).

C. Reynel. Systematics of Neotropical Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) with an Account on the Wood Anatomy of the Genus. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri, St. Louis. 1995.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Shrubs or trees, rarely scandent; trunks and branches often armed with prickles, the branchIets prickly or unarmed, the bark and wood aromatic. Leaves alternate, odd- or even-pinnate, rarely 1-3 foliolate, persistent or deciduous; petiole and rachis terete or angled, often winged, unarmed or prickly; leaflets opposite to alternate, entire to crenate, frequently inequilateral, pellucid punctate at least marginally, often glandular punctate and with numerous minute peltate scales on both surfaces. Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal panicles, some- times corymbose, racemose, or spikelike. Flowers small, regular, white to greenish yellow or red, unisexual or rarely bisexual, the plants dioecious, rarely monoecious or polygamous; sepals 3-5 or apparently absent, free to connate, persistent or deciduous; petals 3-8, free, imbricate or valvate; stamens 3-5, opposite the sepals, rudimentary or absent in carpellate flowers, the filaments free, unappendaged, the anthers elliptic to ovate; intrastaminal disc small and annular or obscure; gynoecium of 1-5, sessile to stipitate, free or connate carpels, rudimentary or absent in staminate flowers; ovary 1-5-loculed, the ovules 2 per locule, collateral, pendulous, the styles sublateral, connate to free, the stigmas capitate, free or connate. Fruits of 1-5 sessile to stipitate, coriaceous to fleshy, 2-valved, 1-seeded, free to connate, glandular-punctate follicles; seeds ovoid, obovoid, subglobose, or lenticular, often remaining attached to the placenta by the funiculus at maturity, the testa crustaceous, black, brownish, or reddish, lustrous, the endosperm fleshy, the embryo axial, straight or curved, the cotyledons flat, the radicle short.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Shrubs sometimes scrambling, trees, or woody climbers, evergreen or deciduous, dioecious, rarely monoecious or polygamo-monoecious [or monoclinous], usually armed [or exclusively unarmed]. Leaves alternate, odd-pinnately 3- to many foliolate or sometimes digitately 3-foliolate (occasional leaves even-pinnate, 2-foliolate, or 1-foliolate). Inflorescences terminal, axillary, or basal to leaves, paniculate, thyrsiform, corymbiform, racemose, or umbelliform. Perianth in 2 series and differentiated with 4 or 5 sepals and 4 or 5 petals or grading to 1 series and undifferentiated with 5-9 tepals. Sepals distinct or basally connate. Petals valvate or imbricate in bud. Stamens distinct, 4 or 5 in plants with sepals and petals, 3-8(-10) in plants with tepals, rudimentary or lacking in female flowers. Disk flattened, pulvinate, or columnar. Gynoecium 1-5-carpelled, rudimentary or lacking in male flowers; ovaries basally connate, otherwise ± contiguous or distinct, 1-loculed; ovules 2 per locule. Styles in compound gynoecium apical or subapical, coherent or contiguous to spreading-ascending or recurved; stigmas capitate, coherent or distinct. Style in simple gynoecium off-centered, erect or variously curved or bent; stigma capitate to peltate. Fruit follicles 1-5, distinct or basally connate, apex often with a stylar beak; abortive carpels, if any, often persistent. Seeds globose to ovoid, persistent in dehisced fruit; seed coat with a thick or rarely ± thin inner layer of dense black sclerenchyma and spongy-fleshy outer layer bounded externally by a shiny black or reddish pellicle; endosperm copious or rarely scant; embryo straight or ± curved; cotyledons ± orbicular to broadly elliptic, flattened or rarely plano-convex; hypocotyl superior.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    "Fls unisexual, our spp. dioecious, (3)4–5-merous, the stamens as many as and alternate with the pet; carpels 2–5, the ovaries distinct, the styles coherent above; ovules 2, collateral, pendulous; fr from each carpel a firm-walled or somewhat fleshy follicle, dehiscent across the top, the 1 or 2 seeds often hanging from a long funiculus; shrubs or trees with prickly stems, alternate, odd-pinnately compound lvs and clusters of small greenish or whitish fls. 200+, mainly of warm reg."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Male flowers: stamens opposite the sepals; gynophore short; ovary vestigial

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Petals valvate or slightly imbricate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit a subglobose dehiscent 1-seeded follicle or pair of follicles, glandular-foveolate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: staminodes rudimentary; gynophore short; ovary of 1–2 carpels (1 sometimes aborts), each 1-locular and with 2 subapical collateral pendulous ovules (1 aborts); style terete, oblique, incurved; stigma discoid or subcapitate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves imparipinnate, alternate; leaflets (1–)2–12(or more)-jugate, opposite or alternate1 sessile to petiolulate, usually ± asymmetric, crenulate, serrate or entire, dotted with pellucid glands

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Seed subglobose, black, shiny.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Deciduous or evergreen aculeate shrubs or trees; trunk usually with bosses

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers unisexual by abortion, usually on separate plants, 4–5-merous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Sepals usually persistent and very small

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence of terminal and/or axillary panicles or of racemes borne at the base of new branches below the leaves

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Shrubs or trees

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Zanthoxylum is a genus of over 200 species, primarily pantropical, but extending into the North Temperate Zone in eastern Asia and North America.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Included Species

      Bibliography

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rutaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).