Anacardiaceae R.Br.
  • Narr. Exped. Zaire 431. 1818. (5 Mar 1818)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Anacardiaceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000022. Accessed on: 25 Nov 2020'

General Information

Trees or shrubs, also woody climbers or perennial herbs, resiniferous secretory ducts in bark and foliage, plants turpentine-smelling, blackening when wounded, hermaphroditic, polygamo-dioecious or dioecious. Leaves often clustered distally, alternate, exstipulate, simple, trifoliolate or imparipinnate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary thyrsoids or panicles; floral subtending bracts small, or sometimes large, membranous and fused to pedicel (Dobinea). Flowers small, actinomorphic, 3-5-merous, bisexual to unisexual; receptacle sometimes elongate and barrel-shaped (Mangifera). Perianth usually double (single in Pistacia or lacking in female flowers in Dobinea); sepals fused basally and lobed (bractlike in Pistacia), imbricate or valvate in bud, caducous or persistent. Petals free or adnate basally to extended receptacle, imbricate or valvate, deciduous to persistent. Stamens in 1 or 2 whorls, 1 (Anacardium, Mangifera), several, or all fertile; filaments slender, sometimes connate basally (Anacardium); anthers ovoid or oblong, introrse, dorsi- or basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, 2-celled with 4 pollen sacs. Disk usually distinct, intrastaminal to extrastaminal, fleshy, crenulate, stipe-shaped or 5-10-notched, round, flattened or subcupular. Ovary superior, sometimes half inferior or inferior (Pegia and Semecarpus), either (a) 1-carpellate and 1-locular, (b) syncarpous and 2-5-locular (rarely more), (c) 4-6-carpellate and apocarpous (Buchanania), or (d) 5-carpellate and incompletely connate (Dracontomelon); stigmas 1-5 (rarely more), ± distinct, each locule with one apotropous ovule, usually with one carpel developing to maturity. Fruit drupaceous or dry and indehiscent (Dobinea), sometimes borne on enlarged fleshy hypocarp formed by pedicel and receptacle (Anacardium and Semecarpus) or fused to membranous accrescent floral subtending bract (Dobinea), composed of 1-5, rarely more, cells, each containing 1 seed; epicarp thin; mesocarp usually fleshy, fibrous and resinous; endocarp crustaceous to bony.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Disk present

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Stamens often double the number of the petals, rarely equal or numerous or only one fertile; filaments free among themselves; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Calyx variously divided, sometimes semi-superior in fruit

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    Petals 3–7 or absent, free or rarely connate and adnate to the torus

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    Seeds without or with very thin endosperm; cotyledons fleshy

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    Ovary superior, 1-celled, rarely 2–5-celled, or very rarely carpels free; styles 1–5, often widely separated; ovules solitary, pendulous from the apex or adnate to the ovary wall, or pendulous from a basal funicle

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    Fruit mostly drupaceous

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    Leaves alternate, very rarely opposite, simple or compound; stipules absent, very rarely present but obscure

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, mostly actinomorphic

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    Trees or shrubs, often with resinous bark

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Sepals united or sometimes free, imbricate or valvate

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    Flowers dioecious, monoecious or polygamous, small, 3–5-merous, actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphic, rarely lacking tepals

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    Inflorescence of axillary or terminal panicles or spike-like racemes

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    Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, exstipulate, simple, pinnate or palmately (1–)3(–5)-foliolate

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    Petals usually free, rarely united and adnate to the disk, imbricate or valvate

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    Trees, shrubs, at times sarmentose, or suffrutices, occasionally thorny, producing resins, gums or latex

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    Seeds erect, horizontal or pendulous with membranous or coriaceous testa; endosperm absent or rarely present and very thin

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    Ovary, sometimes present and vestigial in ?, (1–)3–5(–many)-carpous, 1–6(–many)-locular; loculi 1-ovulate; ovule anatropous; styles free or ± connate

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    Fruit drupaceous or dry with ± resinous or oleaginous mesocarp and bony or coriaceous endocarp, usually with a 1–plurilocular 1–5-seeded stone

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    Stamens inserted round the disk or sometimes on the disk, as many as or twice as many as the petals or numerous; anthers dorsifixed or basifixed, usually all fertile in ?

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    Disk annular, cup-shaped or stipitiform, entire, crenulate or lobed, or absent

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    Fruit drupaceous or dry with ± resinous or oleaginous mesocarp and bony or coriaceous endocarp, generally with a 1-plurilocular 1–3-seeded stone

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    Seeds erect, horizontal or pendulous with membranous or coriaceous testa; endosperm absent or rarely present and very thin

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    Inflorescence of axillary or terminal panicles or spike-like racemes

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    Flowers dioecious, monoecious or polygamous, small, 3–5-merous, actinomorphic or rarely irregular

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    Trees, shrubs at times sarmentose, shrublets or suffrutices, sometimes thorny, producing resins, gums or latex

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    Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, exstipulate, simple, imparipinnate or (1)3-foliolate

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    Disk annular, cup-shaped or stipitiform, entire, crenulate or lobed or absent

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    Ovary, sometimes present and vestigial in the male flowers, (1)3–5(?)-carpous, 1–6-locular, rarely multilocular, loculi 1-ovulate; ovule anatropous; styles free or ± connate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Sepals united or sometimes free, imbricate or valvate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Stamens, inserted round the disk or sometimes on the disk, as many as or twice as many as the petals or numerous, usually all fertile in the male flowers

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Arbres , arbustes quelquefois sarmenteux, sous-arbustes ou lianes dioïques, monoïques ou polygames; canaux résinifères dans l'écorce et souvent dans la moelle des rameaux; exsudats résineux, gommeux ou laiteux.'Feuilles'alternes, rarement opposées ou verticillées, exstipulées, pétiolées ou sessiles, imparipennées, parfois 3-foliolées, 1-foliolées, ou simples.'Panicules'terminales, axillaires ou rarement caulinaires, ± pyramidales et ± lâches, ou spiciformes, ou réduites à quelques fleurs; bractées et bractéoles généralement présentes.'Fleurs'♂♀, moins souvent ☿, actinomorphes, petites, à préfloraison valvaire ou imbriquée; sépales 3-5, ± soudés ou libres; pétales généralement présents et dépassant le calice; étamines en nombre égal ou double des pétales, quelquefois plus nombreuses dans les fleurs ♂, rarement moins; filets libres, rarement ± soudés; anthères biloculaires, dorsifixes, s'ouvrant par fentes longitudinales, introrses, plus petites et stériles dans les fleurs ♀; disque généralement présent, intrastaminal, concave à convexe dans les fleurs ♂, ± annulaire dans les ♀ et les ☿; gynécée (1)3-5(∞)-carpellaire, réduit ou absent dans les fleurs ♂; ovaire supère, à loges uniovulées; ovule anatrope, suspendu à un funicule subbasal longeant ± longuement la paroi ou rarement pendant du sommet; style 1, simple, ou trilobé à trifide, ou styles aussi nombreux que les loges et ± distants, ou parfois ± excentriques.'Fruits'drupacés, le plus souvent à 1 noyau pluriloculaire dans lequel 1 graine se développe, rarement akènes ou fruits samaroïdes.'Graines sans albumen, à cotylédons charnus, souvent plan-convexes et à embryon droit ou courbé.\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t Plantules à cotylédons hypogés ou épigés; les 2 premières feuilles souvent opposées et simples.\n\t\t\tFamille pantropicale, groupant 75 genres et environ 600 espèces; au Congo belge, 11 genres, dont 2(3) introduits, 87 espèces et 12 variétés.\n\t\t\tDes espèces de plusieurs genres ont été décrites comme polygames, entre autres dans les genres'Antrocaryon ,'Heeria ,'Rhus ,'Sclerocarya ,'Sorindeia . D'après nos observations en herbier, les étamines des fleurs considérées comme ☿ semblent stériles; il s'agirait donc de fleurs ♀ et de plantes dioïques. Des observations sur le terrain quant à la répartition exacte des sexes sont souhaitables.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Anacardiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).