Balsaminaceae A.Rich.
  • Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 2: 173. 1822. (31 Dec 1822)


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs annual or perennial [rarely epiphytic or subshrubs]. Stems erect or procumbent, usually succulent, often rooting at lower nodes. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite, or verticillate, not stipulate, or sometimes with stipular glands at base of petiole, petiolate or sessile, pinnately veined, margin serrate to nearly entire, teeth often glandular-mucronate. Flowers bisexual, protandrous, zygomorphic, resupinate to through 180° in axillary or subterminal racemes or pseudo-umbellate inflorescences, or not pedunculate, fascicled or solitary. Sepals 3(or 5); lateral sepals free or connate, margins entire or serrate; lower sepal (lip) large, petaloid, usually navicular, funnelform, saccate, or cornute, tapering or abruptly constricted into a nectariferous spur broadly or narrowly filiform, straight, curved, incurved, or ± coiled, swollen at tip, or pointed, rarely 2-lobed, rarely without spur. Petals 5, free, upper petal (standard) flat or cucullate, small or large, often crested abaxially, lateral petals free or united in pairs (wing). Stamens 5, alternating with petals, connate or nearly so into a ring surrounding ovary and stigma, falling off in one piece before stigma ripens; filaments short, flat with a scalelike appendage inside; anthers 2-celled, connivent, opening by a slit or pore. Gynoecium 4- or 5-carpellate, syncarpous; ovary superior, 4- or 5-loculed, each locule with 2 to many anatropous ovules; style 1, very short or ± absent; stigmas 1-5. Fruit an indehiscent berry, or a 4- or 5-valved loculicidal fleshy capsule, usually dehiscing elastically. Seeds dispersed explosively from opening valves, without endosperm; testa smooth or tuberculate.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Petals 3, the upper one outside, usually erect, concave, the lateral ones often 2-lobed

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    Succulent herbs; leaves alternate or opposite, simple, penninerved; stipules absent

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    Sepals 3, rarely 5, coloured, imbricate, unequal, the lowermost hollowed out into a spur

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    Flowers zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, brightly coloured, solitary to subumbellate

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    Stamens 5; filaments short and broad; anthers 2-celled, connate around the ovary

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    Fruit a succulent capsule, opening elastically into 5 twisted valves

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    Ovary superior, 5-celled, with axile placentas; stigmas 1–5, more or less sessile; ovules numerous

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    Seeds without endosperm and with straight embryo

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    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes with a tuberous or rhizomatous rootstock, occasionally subshrubby, sometimes epiphytic or semi-aquatic, usually growing in moist places in partial or complete shade, but never in dry places; stems usually succulent, rarely woody below, glabrous or pilose, upright or procumbent, often rooting at the lower nodes

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    Leaves simple, petiolate to sometimes sessile, spirally arranged, opposite or verticillate, pinnately veined, glabrous or pilose (hairs simple, multicellular); margins crenate, dentate or serrate, the teeth often with glanduliferous appendages, these sometimes fimbriate or filiform towards the base of the lamina; petiole occasionally with short capitate glands or fimbriae (extra-floral nectaries), usually in the upper half; exstipulate or with simple or branched glandular stipule-like structures

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    Flowers (fig. 1) bisexual, zygomorphic, resupinate through 180°, in simple or pseudoumbellate racemes forming axillary, rarely subterminal, inflorescences, or flowers often epedunculate, fascicled or solitary; bracts entire, rarely toothed; bracteoles occasionally present

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    Sepals 3, rarely 5, the lateral ones small, entire or toothed, the lower one (lower by resupination) large, navicular, funnel-shaped or saccate, tapering or abruptly constricted into a nectariferous spur which may be short- or long-filiform, straight, curved or incurved, or ± coiled, swollen at the tip or pointed, rarely bilobed or digitately lobed, often coloured

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    Petals 5, usually coloured, sometimes white, thin and sappy; the dorsal one (dorsal by resupination) small or large, flat or cucullate, often crested dorsally; lower petals free or united into lateral pairs at or below the middle (the lateral-united petals), the petals of each pair overlapping or with a narrow or wide sinus between them, the upper petals bilobed, emarginate or entire, as large as the lower petals or smaller, sometimes reduced to a tiny lobe, the lower petals seldom reduced, usually large or showy, bilobed, emarginate or entire, sometimes asymmetrically bilobed, the inner lobe occasionally drawn out into a long tapering appendage, sometimes emarginate along the inner margin

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    Stamens 5, alternating with the petals, connate or subconnate into a ring surrounding the ovary and stigma, falling off in one piece before the stigma ripens

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    Ovary superior, 5-locular, with exile placentation; ovules anatropous, 3–many; style 1, very short or ± absent; stigmas 1–5

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    Fruit a berry or a 5-valved loculicidal fleshy explosive capsule, the valves opening and coiling elastically to expel the seeds, glabrous or variously pubescent

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    • 2
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    Seed without endosperm, the testa smooth, warted or with simple, 1–many celled, hairs

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    • 2
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    Ovary superior, of 5 carpels, 5-locular, with axile placentation; ovules pendulous, anatropous, 3-many in a row on each placenta; style 1, usually very short; stigmas 1–5

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    Seeds without endosperm; embryo straight

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    Fruit a 5-valved loculicidal capsule, with the valves opening elastically and coiling, rarely a berry (in the Asiatic genus Hydrocera)

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    Petals 5; the anterior one (apparently posterior in position in the mature flower) always large, flat or helmet-shaped, often dorsally carinate; the 4 lower ones usually connate in lateral pairs, very rarely free, usually deeply 2-lobed, rarely with the posterior lobe reduced to a small auricle

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    Stamens 5, alternating with the petals; filaments flattened, connate above, closely attached to the ovary; anthers 2-thecous, connate or coherent, thus forming a crown round the ovary

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    Flowers bisexual, sometimes cleistogamous (often in certain species with both normal and cleistogamous ones in the same inflorescence), always zygomorphic

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    Sepals 3, rarely 5, deciduous, imbricate; the posterior one (apparently anterior in position by resupination) petaloid, large, funnel-shaped, obliquely navicular or bucciniform, nearly always with a nectariferous spur; the lateral ones usually small, green or coloured

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    Leaves simple, petiolate or sessile, verticillate or opposite or spirally arranged, pinnately veined with margins crenulate or serrate or denticulate and often with glanduliferous (tentacle-like) hairs; exstipulate or with stipular glands

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    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Inflorescences usually axillary, more rarely of terminal racemes or pseudumbels or fascicles, or flowers solitary

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    Herbs, often with a suffrutescent habit, sometimes epiphytic, sometimes aquatic, glabrous or with an indumentum of simple hairs; stems herbaceous, succulent or rarely woody

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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Balsaminaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).