Boraginaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 128. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Boraginaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000079. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual, less often lianas, shrubs, or trees, usually bristly or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple, exstipulate, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin. Inflorescences often double scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed, mostly persistent. Corolla tubular, campanulate, rotate, funnelform, or salverform; tube appendages 5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring of hairs present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube or rarely at throat, included or rarely exserted; anthers introrse, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed at base, less often medifixed, dehiscence longitudinal. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous, semianatropous, or anatropous. Style terminal or gynobasic, branched or not. Gynobase flat, fastigiate, or subulate. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets (mericarps); nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles with barbed or anchorlike tips). Seeds vertical or oblique, coat membranous; embryo straight, less often curved; cotyledons flat, fleshy.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Fruit a drupe or of 4: nutlets

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    Seeds with or without endosperm

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    Ovary superior, 2-celled or 4-celled by spurious septa, entire or deeply 4-lobed; style terminal or gynobasic

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    Ovules paired, erect or spreading from the central axis

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    Anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Disk present or absent

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    Corolla with contorted or imbricate lobes

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    Stamens the same number as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, inserted on the corolla

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Flowers often in scorpoid cymes, actinomorphic or rarely oblique, mostly hermaphrodite

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    Calyx-lobes imbricate or rarely valvate

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    Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple; stipules absent

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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, often roughly scabrid or hispid

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    Nectariferous disc usually present

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    Style usually 1, 2 in one genus or sometimes 4 in one species of >i>Cordia, terminal or gynobasic, entire or 2–4-fid or twice 2-fid; stigmas clavate, capitate or peltate or linear to narrowly foliaceous

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    Fruit drupaceous with 1, 4-celled endocarp or separating in 2 bilocular or 4 unilocular 1-seeded pyrenes or with 4 quite distinct nutlets

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    Ovary superior, entire or deeply 4-lobed, 2-locular with 2 ovules in each or with 4, 1-ovuled locules due to the development of false partitions

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    Ovules axile, anatropous, erect, horizontal, basal or rarely pendulous

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    Seed with or without endosperm, erect, oblique or horizontal; testa membranous; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons flat or plicate

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    Annual or perennial herbs, often woody at the base, subshrubs, trees or woody climbers, usually characteristically scabrid or hispid

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    Leaves simple, alternate or less often opposite, petiolate or sessile, entire or variously toothed or crenate; stipules absent

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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, bifurcate or in raceme-like or panicled groups, basically dichotomous cymes, the branches frequently scorpioid and spirally inrolled when young; bracts present or absent

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual (Cordia), sessile or pedicellate, mostly 5-merous, regular or somewhat irregular, occasionally heterostylous

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    Calyx tubular or campanulate, persistent and sometimes accrescent in fruit, with (2–)4–7 (or more) imbricate or rarely valvate or open lobes

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    Stamens the same number and alternating with the corolla-lobes, exserted or included, epipetalous; anthers 2- thecous

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    Corolla tubular, campanulate, funnel-shaped or rotate with tube very reduced; lobes 3–16, imbricate or contorted (>i>Myosotis); throat often with scales, thickenings, folds or crests

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    Corolla (4)5(6)-lobed, imbricate or contorted in bud, tubular, funnel-shaped, campanulate, salver-shaped or rotate; tube sometimes with folds, scales or hairs in the throat

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    Stamens (or staminodes) as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, inserted on the corolla tube; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally, introrse, dorsifixed

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    Disk present or absent

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    Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite or opposite, simple exstipulate

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    Inflorescence usually cymose, composed of one or more helicoid or scorpioid cymes, sometimes paniculate or racemose or sometimes flowers solitary, terminal or axillary

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic

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    Calyx (4)5(6)-lobed or 3–5-toothed, imbricate or valvate

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    Herbs, shrubs or rarely trees

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    Fruit drupaceous with a 1–4-seeded stone or splitting into 4 pyrenes, or of one to four-seeded nutlets; seeds generally without endosperm

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    Ovary superior, entire or deeply 4-lobed, bi-locular or spuriously 4-locular, placentation axial, ovules 4, erect or spreading; style 1, terminal or gynobasic, entire or cleft or twice cleft, or styles 2, terminal (Coldenia)

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    Herbes'annuelles ou vivaces, souvent suffrutescentes à la base, dressées ou couchées, généralement scabres ou hispides à poils souvent dilatés à leur base; plus rarement arbustes ou arbres.'Feuilles'alternes, rarement opposées, pétiolées ou sessiles, simples, entières ou dentées, non stipulées.'Inflorescences'terminales ou axillaires, simples, bifurquées ou groupées en racèmes ou panicules, généralement cymes dichotomiques à ramifications souvent scorpioïdes et enroulées en crosse avant la floraison; bractées et bractéoles présentes ou absentes; bractées parfois foliacées et colorées.'Fleurs'☿ , parfois ♀ ♂ (Cordia), sessiles ou pédicellées, actinomorphes, parfois zygomorphes, blanches, jaunes, bleues ou rougeâtres-violacées; périanthe double; calice tubulaire ou campanulé, persistant, fréquemment accrescent sous le fruit, à (4)5(7) dents ou lobes, imbriqués ou rarement valvaires; corolle gamopétale à préfloraison imbriquée, rarement contortée ( Myosotis ), tubuleuse, campanulée, infundibuliforme ou à tube très court et rotacée, (3)5(8)-lobée; tube souvent garni à la gorge, sous les lobes, de gibbo- sités, squamelles, plis ou poils; étamines en même nombre que les lobes de la corolle et alternant avec eux, insérées à l'intérieur du tube corollin ou à la gorge, exsertes ou incluses, sessiles ou à filet filiforme ou largement aplati, glabre ou velu; anthères 2-loculaires, dorsifixes, variables de forme, s'ouvrant longitudinalement, parfois appendiculées, parfois conniventes autour du style ou même adnées à celui-ci; disque présent ou nul, généralement formé de glandes autour de l'ovaire; ovaire supère, entier ou profondément 4-lobé, à 2 loges 2-ovulées ou à 4 loges 1-ovulées par suite de la formation de fausses cloisons; placentation axile; ovules érigés ou presque horizontaux, rarement penduleux; style 1, terminal ou gynobasique, entier ou 2-4- fide ou styles 2, terminaux ( Coldenia ); hétérostylie fréquente; stigmate clavé, capité, pelté ou branches stigmatiques linéaires ou foliacées.'Fruits'drupacés, contenant 1 noyau à 4 loges ou se dissociant en 2 méricarpes biloculaires ou en 4 méricarpes uniloculaires, ou fruits à 4 nucules monospermes, souvent anguleuses, hérissées ou non de glochidies ou de soies, fréquemment ± adnées au style et fixées sur le réceptacle par une aréole basilaire, latérale-ventrale ou subapicale.'Graines le plus souvent sans albumen.\n\t\t\tFamille cosmopolite comprenant 100 genres et environ 2000 espèces réparties dans les régions tempérées et tropicales de l'Ancien et du Nouveau Monde, très nombreuses dans les régions sèches méditerranéennes. Pour la Flore : 9 genres, 31 espèces, 1 sous-espèce et 5 variétés.\n\t\t\tLes'Boraginaceae'sont utilisées pour leurs propriétés médicales et industrielles : matière colorante rouge dans les racines, mucilage de nombreuses espèces possédant des propriétés astringentes, diurétiques et narcotiques. Certains genres ( Heliotropium ,'Echium ,'Myosotis ) ont une utilisation horticole.

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Boraginaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).