Herbs, perennial, terrestrial, among or on rocks, or epiphytic. Roots usually present, often poorly developed in epiphytic taxa. Stems very short to very elongate. Leaves usually spirally arranged, forming water-impounding rosette, occasionally lax and / or 2-ranked, simple, margins serrate or entire, trichomes nearly always covering surface, peltate, water-absorbing. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, sessile to scapose, simple or compound; bracts usually present, conspicuous. Flowers bisexual or functionally unisexual, radially symmetric to slightly bilaterally symmetric; perianth in 2 distinct sets of 3; stamens in 2 series of 3; ovary inferior or superior; placentation axile. Fruits capsules or berries. Seeds plumose, winged, or unappendaged.
Herbs or rarely shrubs, epiphytic, lithophytic, or terrestrial. Leaves spirally arranged, usually rosulate, sessile, simple, veins parallel, base dilated, sheathing, margin often spinose serrate or sometimes entire. Inflorescence terminal or lateral, scapose or sessile, a panicle, raceme, spike, or head, sometimes reduced to solitary, pseudolateral flowers; bracts usually brightly colored and conspicuous. Flowers bisexual or sometimes functionally unisexual, 3-merous. Sepals and petals each 3, distinct, free or basally connate; petals often brightly colored, basal margin with a pair of scalelike appendages. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls of 3; filaments free, connate, or collectively or individually adnate to petals; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Gynoecium of 3 carpels united to form a compound, 3-loculed, superior or very often partly or wholly inferior ovary; ovules few to usually ± numerous in each locule; placentation axile. Style terminal and often 3-parted; stigmas papillose. Fruit a berry or less often a septicidal capsule, or seldom compound and fleshy. Seeds usually winged or plumose; endosperm mealy; embryo small to fairly large.
Seeds with abundant mealy endosperm and a small embryo, sometimes winged
Mostly short-stemmed epiphytes or growing on rocks
Ovules numerous in each loculus, the axile placentas sometimes divided
Leaves usually in a dense cluster, long and strap-shaped, rigid and spinulose-toothed or rarely flaccid, often coloured towards the base
Fruit fleshy and indehiscent or rarely opening unevenly, or rarely a septicidal or loculicidal capsule
Flowers in a terminal head, spike, or panicle often with highly coloured bracts, actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual
Ovary superior to inferior, 3-locular; style slender, elongated, stigmas 3
Stamens 6, mostly inserted at the base of the segments, free or partially adnate to them; anthers free or rarely connate in a ring, linear, usually versatile, 2-locular, opening by longitudinal slits
Brown, G. K. and A. J. Gilmartin. 1989. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 76: 657--665. Brown, G. K. and A. J. Gilmartin. 1989b. Stigma types in Bromeliaceae---A systematic survey. Syst. Bot. 14: 110--132. Brown, G. K. and R. G. Terry. 1992. Petal appendages in Bromeliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 1051--1071. Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1974. Pitcairnioideae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 14(1). Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1977. Tillandsioideae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 14(2). Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1979. Bromelioideae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 14(3).
|Bromeliad or Pineapple Family|