Campanulaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 163. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Campanulaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000106. Accessed on: 15 Jul 2020'

General Information

Herbs, lactiferous, perennial (often with rhizomes or caudices), less often annual, [or shrubs or trees outside of China]. Leaves estipulate, alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple, entire or variously toothed or dissected, petiolate or sessile. Flowers tetracyclic, perfect, with a specialized method of proterandrous secondary pollen presentation, resupinate in Lobelioideae, solitary in an axillary or less often terminal position, or aggregated into terminal or axillary inflorescences that appear racemose or paniculate (rarely capitate), pedicellate or rarely sessile; bracts leaflike or reduced, rarely absent; pedicels often bracteolate. Calyx synsepalous, adnate to ovary and forming a hypanthium (free in Cyananthus); lobes (3-)5(-10), valvate, sometimes with a reflexed appendage in each sinus, in some Codonopsis, inserted well below rim of hypanthium. Corolla sympetalous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, most often some shade of blue or violet, or white; lobes (4 or)5(-10), valvate. Stamens equaling number of corolla lobes, antisepalous, distinct, coherent, or connate; anthers tetrasporangiate, dithecal, introrsely dehiscent by longitudinal slits, basifixed. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2-5(-10)-locular with axile placentation, [rarely 1-locular with parietal, basal, or apical placentation outside of China]; ovary at least partly inferior (superior in Cyananthus), sometimes crowned by an annular or tubular nectary; style solitary, pubescent with pollen-collecting hairs below apex; stigma typically with as many lobes as ovary locules. Fruit a capsule, commonly apically loculicidal or laterally poricidal, or a berry. Seeds usually small, numerous; embryo small, straight; endosperm copious, oily or rarely starchy.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Fruit capsular or baccate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovules mostly numerous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior or rarely superior, 2-10-celled, with axile placentas

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, inserted towards the base of the corolla or the disk; anthers free, 2-celled, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Corolla gamopetalous, tubular or campanulate, lobes valvate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 3-10-lobed

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs to small trees, nearly always with milky juice

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx –{_ adnate to the ovary; lobes usually free, persistent, valvate in bud

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, usually protandrous, regular, (3–) 5(–10)–merous, mostly with a bract and 2 bracteoles

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens alternating with the corolla–lobes, free or rarely adnate to the corolla; anthers very rarely entirely or partly connate, introrse; filaments usually dilated at the base

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals connate to various degrees, sometimes almost free, valvate in bud

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, or rarely small shrubs, laticiferous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences generally cymose, panicle–, raceme–, spike– or head–like, or flowers solitary

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, entire, dentate to incised or rarely variously lobed, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit capsular, variously dehiscing by apical or lateral valves or pores, or 4; baccate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1–many, albuminous; embryo straight, terete

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± inferior, rarely superior, 2–10–locular; ovules few–many, anatropous, on axile placentas; style 1, furnished with pollen–collecting hairs on and usually below the style–lobes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences generally cymose, panicle-, raceme-, spike- or head-like, or flowers solitary

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, or rarely small shrubs, laticiferous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, entire, dentate to incised or rarely variously lobed, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals connate to various degrees, sometimes almost free, valvate in bud

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens alternating with the corolla-lobes, free or rarely adnate to the corolla; anthers very rarely entirely or partly connate, introrse; filaments usually dilated at the base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary ± inferior, rarely superior, 2–10-locular; ovules few-many, anatropous, on axile placentas; style 1, furnished with pollen-collecting hairs on and usually below the style-lobes

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit capsular, variously dehiscing by apical or lateral valves or pores, or ± baccate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual, usually protandrous, regular, (3–)5(–10)-merous, mostly with a bract and 2 bracteoles

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Calyx ± adnate to the ovary; lobes usually free, persistent, valvate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1-many, albuminous; embryo straight, terete

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 35 genera and some 700 species, especially well represented in the Mediterranean region and S. Africa, but relatively sparsely developed in the tropics

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Campanulaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).