Caryophyllaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 299. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Pink Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Caryophyllaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000117. Accessed on: 06 Jun 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual or perennial, rarely subshrubs or shrubs. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate, simple, entire, usually connate at base; stipules scarious, bristly, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, rarely unisexual, occasionally cleistogamous. Sepals (4 or)5, free, imbricate, or connate into a tube, leaflike or scarious, persistent, sometimes bracteate below calyx. Petals (4 or)5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--)5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united into a compound ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous, campylotropous. Styles (1 or)2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous, scarious, or papery, dehiscing by teeth or valves 1 or 2 × as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform, ovoid, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed, abaxially grooved, blunt, or sharply pointed, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular, striate or tuberculate, rarely smooth or spongy; embryo strongly curved and surrounding perisperm or straight but eccentric; perisperm mealy.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs [small trees, shrubs, or vines], winter annual, annual, biennial, or perennial, glabrous or pubescence of simple hairs or stalked glands; taprooted and/or rhizomatous with fibrous roots, sometimes from woody caudex, rhizomes rarely with tuberous thickenings. Stems erect to prostrate, often with swollen nodes, herbaceous. Leaves opposite, pseudoverticillate, whorled, or rarely alternate, distinct or connate proximally, simple; petiole often present; stipules present or absent; blade subulate to linear, spatulate to broadly ovate or suborbiculate, succulent or not, margins entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary cymes, thyrses, or capitula, or flowers solitary; bracts usually paired, foliaceous or reduced, herbaceous to scarious, or absent; involucel bracteoles (epicalyces) immediately subtending calyx occasionally present. Pedicels present, or flowers sessile. Flowers bisexual or occasionally unisexual, radially symmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous or perigynous; hypanthium, when present, urceolate, cup-, disc-, or dish-shaped, sometimes abruptly expanded distally; sepals persistent in fruit, (3-)4-5, distinct or connate proximally into cup or tube, herbaceous or scarious, apex sometimes hooded or with apical or subapical spine; petals absent or (1-)4-5, often fugacious in Polycarpon, distinct, often clawed, auricles present or absent, coronal appendages present or absent, blade apex entire, notched, or 2(-4)-fid, sometimes dentate or laciniate; stamens 1-10, in 1 or 2 whorls, arising from base of ovary, nectariferous disc, or hypanthium rim, absent in pistillate flowers; staminodes usually absent, or 1-10 or 16-19; ovary 1, superior, 1-locular, rarely 2-locular proximally, or 3-5 locular, placentation free-central, basal, or axile in proximal half; ovules mostly campylotropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate; styles 1-5(-6), distinct or connate proximally, absent in staminate flowers; stigmas 2-5(-6), linear along adaxial surface of styles (or style branches), subcapitate, or terminal, papillate or obscurely so, absent in staminate flowers. Fruits capsules, carpels opening into entire valves or valves split axially into teeth to divided to base, or a usually indehiscent utricle; carpophore sometimes present. Seeds 1-150(-500+), often brown or black, sometimes white or yellowish to tan, reniform or triangular to globose and often laterally compressed, sometimes shield-shaped or oblong and dorsiventrally compressed, horizontal wing sometimes present, spongy appendage (strophiole) rarely present (Moehringia); embryo often peripheral, curved, surrounding the perisperm, rarely annular or central and straight; endosperm absent.

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    Morphology

    Flowers actinomorphic, mostly hermaphrodite, solitary or in cymes

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    Herbs, annual or perennial; leaves opposite, simple, often connected at the base by a transverse line; stipules absent or if present often scarious

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    Petals as many as the sepals, often small or absent

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    Sepals free or united into a tube, imbricate, often with membranous margins

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    Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stipitate, 1-celled or imperfectly divided at the base, with free-central placentation; styles free or variously connate; ovules mostly numerous

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    Stamens up to 10, free from one another or slightly united at the base; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Capsule opening by valves or apical teeth

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    Seeds with endosperm and a more or less curved peripheral or excentric embryo

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    Sepals free or calyx gamosepalous, often persistent and frequently more or less scarious

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    Petals free, in the gamosepalous genera usually with well-differentiated lamina and claw and coronal scales often present, in the polysepalous genera less differentiated and entire to more or less deeply bifid, sometimes absent

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    Inflorescence cymose, often loosely dichasial but occasionally secund or capitate, rarely flowers solitary

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    Flowers actinomorphic (at least in our genera), bisexual or unisexual, 5-merous or rarely 4-merous, perianth hypogynous or perigynous, often with an anthophore between the calyx and corolla

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    Fruit capsular

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    Stamens 5 + 5 or fewer by reduction

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    Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stalked, 1-locular or incompletely or more rarely completely divided into 2–5 loculi; ovules 2-many with axile, central, free-central or basal placentation

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    Annual or perennial herbs or shrublets

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves opposite, often arranged in false whorls; stipules present or absent

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    Fruits capsular or reduced to one-seeded indehiscent nutlets

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    Seeds with perisperm but no, or at most very little, endosperm; embryo most often curved

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    Stamens 5 + 5 or fewer by reduction

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    Gynoecium of 2, 3, 4, or 5 carpels, syncarpous; ovary 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-locular or unilocular, with numerous, few, or solitary ovules with axile, central, free central, or basal placentation

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    Corolla of free petals, in the gamosepalous genera with usually well differentiated lamina and claw and corona of scales often present, in the polysepalous genera not so differentiated, entire to deeply bi-lobed, sometimes absent

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    Calyx of free sepals (polysepalous) or gamosepalous, frequently persistent and becoming more or less scarious

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    Flowers, with few exceptions, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual (the species then dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous), parts in fives or rarely in fours, perianth hypogynous or perigynous, often with an internode between the calyx and the corolla

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    Inflorescences cymose, often loosely dichasial but sometimes secund or compact, frequently many-flowered but by reduction few-flowered or flowers solitary

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    Leaves simple, opposite or rarely spiral, with or without stipules

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    Herbs (annual or perennial) or subshrubs, rarely shrubs

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Behnke, H.-D. and T. J. Mabry, eds. 1994. Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics. Berlin. Bittrich, V. 1993. Caryophyllaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 2, pp. 206-236. Hartman, R. L. 1971. The Family Caryophyllaceae in Wyoming. M.S. thesis. University of Wyoming. Hartman, R. L. 1972. [Flora of Wyoming] Caryophyllaceae. Res. J. Wyoming Agric. Exp. Sta. 64: 14-45. Rabeler, R. K. 2004. Caryophyllaceae (pink family). In: N. P. Smith et al., eds. 2004. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton. Pp. 88-90. Rabeler, R. K. and J. W. Thieret. 1988. Comments on the Caryophyllaceae of the southeastern United States. Sida 13: 149-156.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Pink Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Caryophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).