Celastraceae R.Br.
  • Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 554. 1814. (19 Jul 1814)
  • Staff-tree or Bittersweet Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Celastraceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000121. Accessed on: 17 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines, annual or perennial, deciduous or evergreen, synoecious, dioecious, or polygamomonoecious. Leaves alternate, subopposite, opposite, whorled, or fascicled, simple; stipules absent or present; petiole present or absent; blade margins serrate, dentate, spiny, or entire; venation pinnate, palmate, or 1-veined, sometimes obscure. Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, terminal or axillary, cymes, racemes, panicles, thyrses, or fascicles, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, radially symmetric or weakly asymmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous or perigynous; hypanthium free, completely adnate to ovary, or absent; sepals (3–)4–5[–7], distinct or connate proximally; petals 0 or (3–)4–5[–7], distinct; nectary present, rudimentary, or absent; stamens 3–5[–10], distinct, free or adnate to nectary; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; ; pistil 1, 1–5-carpellate, ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, 1–5-locular, placentation axile or parietal; ovules 1–2[–4] or 100–2000+ per locule, anatropous; styles 0, 1, or 3, connate proximally; stigmas 2–5. Fruits capsules, dehiscence loculicidal, drupes, or nutlike (small, hard-walled, indehiscent, 1-locular, and 1-seeded) [berries or samaras]. Seeds 1, 2, 40–70, or 100–2000+ per locule, .

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Trees, erect or scandent shrubs, lianas, evergreen or deciduous; stems sometimes producing rootlets (Euonymus spp.), sometimes thorny (Maytenus spp.), rarely with buttressed trunks. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, petiolate; leaf blade laminar, venation pinnate, secondary veins reticulate, margins entire, crenate, serrate, or dentate; stipules small and caducous, or estipulate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, few to many flowered, cymose, thyrsoid, racemose, fasciculate, or flowers solitary, rarely paniculate. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual; perianth (3 or)4- or 5-merous; sepals and petals free. Disk intrastaminal, stamens on disk, or extrastaminal, annular, margins upturned, pulvinate, or cupular, conspicuous, rarely obscure (Microtropis spp.), entire, lobed, or angular. Stamens 3-5, alternate with petals; anther (1 or)2-celled, basifixed to dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally or obliquely, introrse, extrorse, or latrorse. Ovaries 3-5, superior to half-inferior, often partially immersed in disk, completely or incompletely 2-5-locular, placentation axile, ovules erect, axile, or pendulous, ovules (1 or)2(or 3 or more) per locule; style terminal, simple, short to absent; stigma simple or lobed. Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule, schizocarp of 2-5 indehiscent mericarps, drupe, berry, or samara with a single surrounding wing, rarely an indehiscent capsule or nut with lateral style, pericarp bony, leathery, chartaceous, or fleshy, capsules smooth, angular, deeply lobed, transversely flattened and lobed to base, or connate, rarely prickly, laterally winged. Seeds 1-12, smooth or occasionally furrowed, albuminous or exalbuminous, sometimes winged, wing membranous, basal, exarillate or aril basal to completely enveloping seed, aril membranous, fleshy, rarely mucilaginous; cotyledons flat, foliaceous or thick, connate, germination epigeous. 2n = 8, 12, 14.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves simple, alternate or opposite

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Small trees, shrubs or woody climbers without tendrils, sometimes spiny

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual or unisexual

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stipules inconspicuous or absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–5, free

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–5, usually free

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Carpels 3–5 united, free from or half-embedded in the disk

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens 3–5, alternate with petals

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovules 2–12 in each carpel

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seed sometimes arillate, sometimes winged, sometimes neither

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit a loculicidal capsule, an indehiscent fleshy or hard drupe, a berry, a 3-lobed capsule or a capsule with 3 nearly separate mericarps

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals (3)4–5(6), imbricate or rarely valvate in bud, free or united at the base, persistent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds with a fleshy or submembranous brightly coloured aril, or winged with the funicle free from the wing (Tab. 80 figs 6–7) or united to its base (Tab. 85 fig. A8) or neither arillate nor winged (usually in indehiscent fruits), with or without endosperm; embryo erect, with cotyledons flat or fleshy, rarely united

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit capsular, loculicidal, or of divergent ± dorsiventrally flattened dehiscent mericarps or baccate or drupaceous or dry, indehiscent and sometimes winged

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary free or partly or wholly immersed in the disk, sessile or on a short androgynophore, syncarpous, completely or very rarely incompletely 2–5-locular, or rarely 1-locular by abortion, with 1-? erect or rarely pendulous ovules in 2 rows or rarely superimposed in each loculus; styles as many as the loculi, free or ± united, or absent; stigmas various, free or ± united

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Disk nectariferous, annular, entire or angular or crenulate or lobed or covered with fleshy processes, concave to convex, rarely wholly or partly forming an androgynophore or discontinuous pockets, fleshy or membranous, very rarely absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens (2)3–5(6–10), antisepalous, free or more rarely with filaments partly united to form a tube, inserted outside or on or inside the disk; anthers usually short, (1)2-thecous, extrorse or introrse, basifixed or dorsifixed or versatile, sometimes deciduous, dehiscing by longitudinal or oblique or horizontal slits; pollen simple or more rarely in tetrads or polyads

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals (3)4–5(6), free or rarely united at the base, imbricate or rarely valvate in bud, usually persistent, sometimes with ventral grooves or hollows or appendages

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs, shrublets or woody climbers, without tendrils, glabrous or with simple hairs, unarmed or with axillary shoots terminating in a spine, sometimes with rubber-like latex (gutta) in various parts appearing as elastic threads when a leaf is broken

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves simple, alternate or spiral to subopposite or opposite, sometimes fasciculate on short shoots, entire or with crenate or denticulate to spinose margins, penninerved; stipules small, simple or laciniate, sometimes united by a transverse ridge, usually deciduous, or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual or polygamous or unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, actinomorphic, often fragrant, in axillary and/ or terminal dichasial or monochasial cymes or panicles or thyrses, sometimes with accessory branches, or fasciculate or solitary, usually bracteate; pedicels often articulated

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds with a fleshy or submembranous brightly coloured aril, or winged with the funicle free from the wing or united to its base, or neither arillate nor winged (usually in indehiscent fruits), with or without endosperm; embryo erect, with cotyledons flat or fleshy, rarely united

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit capsular, loculicidal, or of divergent ± dorsally flattened dehiscent mericarps or baccate or drupaceous or dry, indehiscent and sometimes winged

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs, shrublets or woody climbers, without tendrils, glabrous or with simple hairs, unarmed or with axillary shoots terminating in a spine, sometimes with rubber-like latex (gutta) in various parts appearing as elastic threads when a leaf is broken

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves simple, alternate or spiral to subopposite or opposite, sometimes fasciculate on short shoots, entire or with crenate or denticulate to spinose margins, penninerved; stipules small, simple or laciniate, sometimes united by a transverse ridge, usually deciduous, or absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals (3–)4–5(–6), free or rarely united at the base, imbricate or rarely valvate in bud, usually persistent, sometimes with ventral grooves or hollows or appendages

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens (2–)3–5(–10), antisepalous, free or more rarely with filaments partly united to form a tube, inserted outside or on or inside the disc (when present); anthers usually short, (1–)2-thecous, extrorse or introrse, basifixed or dorsifixed or versatile, sometimes deciduous, dehiscing by longitudinal or oblique or horizontal slits; pollen simple or more rarely in tetrads or polyads

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual, polygamous or unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, actinomorphic, often fragrant, in axillary and/or terminal dichasial or monochasial cymes or panicles or thyrses, sometimes with accessory branches (additional to the normal one in the bract axil), or fasciculate or solitary, usually bracteate; pedicels often articulated

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Sepals (3–)4–5(–6), imbricate or rarely valvate in bud, free or united at the base, persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Disc nectariferous, annular, entire or angular or crenulate or lobed or covered with fleshy processes, concave to convex, rarely wholly or partly incorporated in an androgynophore or formed of discontinuous pockets, fleshy or membranous, very rarely absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary free or partly or wholly immersed in the disc, sessile or on a short androgynophore, syncarpous, completely or very rarely incompletely 2–5-locular, or rarely 1-locular by abortion, with 1–many erect or rarely pendulous ovules in 2 rows or rarely superimposed in each locule; styles as many as the locules, free or ± united, or absent; stigmas various, free or ± united

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Arbres'ou arbustes dressés, parfois grimpants, inermes ou épineux; monoïques ou dioïques; feuilles, inflorescences, parfois ramilles et fruits montrant à la rupture chez quelques espèces, même à l'état sec, des fils de latex reliant les fragments.'Feuilles'simples, pétiolées à subsessiles, alternes ou opposées, rarement verticillées ou absentes; stipules petites, ± rapidement caduques.'Inflorescences'axillaires, rarement terminales, rarement épiphylles, en cymes, plus rarement en racèmes ou panicules, parfois fleurs solitaires ou fasciculées.'Fleurs'généralement petites, verdâtres, blanchâtres ou rosâtres, ☿ ou ♂♀ par avortement; sépales (0)4-5, imbriqués, libres ou soudés presque jusqu'au sommet; pétales 4-5, libres ou soudés à la base; disque charnu ou membraneux, plat, patelliforme ou cupuliforme, parfois lobé, ou nul; étamines 4-5 (6, 8-10), alternipétales, insérées sur le disque ou au-dessous du disque, parfois staminodiales ou nulles dans les fleurs ♀; anthères à déhiscence longitudinale ou subapicale, introrses; ovaire 2-5-loculaire, très rarement 1-loculaire par avortement, libre ou ± enfoncé dans le disque; style généralement court; stigmate capité ou 2-3-lobé ou pelté; ovules généralement 2 par loge, rarement 1 ou 3 ou ∞, dressés, rarement pendants.'Fruits': capsules loculicides, 1-5-loculaires, drupes, baies, samares ou fruits secs indéhiscents.'Graines dressées ou pendantes, à arille, parfois aliforme, rarement sans arille, albuminées, rarement exalbuminées; embryon axillaire, à cotylédons plats; radicule droite.\n\t\t\tFamille comprenant ± 800 espèces réparties dans les 2 hémisphères sauf dans les régions arctiques; au Congo belge, 5 genres, 19 espèces et 3 variétés.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE Brizicky, G. K. 1964. The genera of Celastraceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 206–234.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Staff-tree or Bittersweet Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Celastraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).