Lamiaceae Martinov
  • Tekhno-Bot. Slovar. 355. 1820. (3 Aug 1820)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Lamiaceae Martinov. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000318. Accessed on: 10 Aug 2020'

General Information

Herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, annual or perennial, usually aromatic. Stems and branches usually 4-angled. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, simple to pinnately dissected or compound, without stipules. Inflorescences generally compound, sometimes flowers solitary and axillary; verticillasters 2- to many flowered, subtended by leaves or bracts. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, rarely subactinomorphic, bracteolate or not. Calyx persistent, 5-toothed, 2-lipped; upper lip 3-toothed or entire (deciduous in Scutellaria); lower lip 2- or 4-toothed; tube sometimes hairy annulate inside. Corolla limb usually 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed and lower 3-lobed, rarely upper lip entire and lower 4-lobed, also rarely limb (4- or) 5-lobed; tube hairy annulate inside. Stamens epipetalous, 4 or 2, free, rarely filaments connate, sometimes one staminodial; anther 1- or 2-celled, usually dehiscing longitudinally; disc persistent. Ovary superior, 2-celled and each cell 2-ovuled and style subterminal, or ovary 4-parted and each lobe 1-ovuled and style gynobasic (from bases of ovary lobes) with 2-cleft apex. Fruit usually 4 dry nutlets. Seeds with or without endosperm.

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    Morphology

    Stems usually quadrangular

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    Leaves opposite or whorled, simple; stipules absent

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    Stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, 4 or 2; anthers 2-celled, cells often divergent, opening lengthwise

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    Ovary superior, of 2 deeply lobed carpels, the style (gynobasic) arising from the inner base of the lobes; stigmas mostly bifid

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    Calyx persistent, of 5 variously united sepals, often 2-lipped

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    Herbaceous or rarely woody, often odoriferous

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    Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, tubular; lobes 4-5, imbricate, often forming 2 lips or rarely 1 lip

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    Seeds with usually straight embryo without endosperm, or the latter very scanty

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    Ovules 4 in each ovary, erect

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    Fruit of 4 achene-like nutlets, free or cohering in pairs

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, rarely almost actinomorphic, axillary, whorled, racemose or paniculate

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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, branched or simple, thyrsoid with determinate cymes arranged along an indeterminate axis, often with paired cymes congested into verticils but sometimes appearing racemose by the reduction of cymes to a single flower, or spicate or capitate by reduction of both the internodes of the inflorescence axis and cyme axes; bracts persistent or not, occasionally coloured; bracteoles present or absent

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    Flowers zygomorphic occasionally actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, hypogynous, usually showy, often with a fleshy nectariferous disk, sometimes resupinate, usually many subtended by a bract, occasionally 1 in bract axils (in reduced cymes), usually pedicellate, rarely sessile

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    Calyx gamosepalous, actinomorphic to bilabiate, persistent, tubular to broadly campanulate or spreading, sometimes bearded at throat; lobes usually 5, sometimes 2 or 3, and often enlarged in fruit, sometimes closing throat

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    Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, 5-lobed, typically bilabiate with posterior lip 2–4-lobed and anterior lip 1–3-lobed, variously coloured; tube cylindrical, parallel sided, amplified or constricted distally, or saccate below, straight or curved, sometimes annulate within

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    Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees, often aromatic

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    Stems frequently square in cross section

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    Leaves opposite and decussate or sometimes whorled, very rarely alternate, usually simple rarely pinnately or palmately dissected or compound, usually crenate or serrate, sometimes entire or more deeply toothed, petiolate or sessile, stipules absent

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    Gynoecium 2-carpellate, fused to form a pistil; ovary superior, 2-locular but appearing 4-locular due to ovary wall intrusions (false septa), slightly to deeply 4-lobed; ovules 1 in each apparent locule, anatropous, erect, placentation axile (often appearing basal) with ovules laterally attached on the face of the false septum, subterminal (just short of inrolled carpel margins); style 1, gynobasic (arising from central depression of ovary lobes) to terminal, usually bifid at apex; stigmas minute at stylar branch tips

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    Stamens 4, didynamous (anterior pair longer) or of equal length, or sometimes reduced to 2, epipetalous, free or rarely fused (monodelphic), usually exserted; filaments hairy or glabrous, rarely appendiculate; anthers basi- or dorsifixed, sometimes with a prominent connective, usually with 2-thecae, rarely with one aborted, introrse; thecae dehiscing longitudinally, rarely apically, parallel to divaricate, sometimes confluent at apex or synthecous

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    Fruit a schizocarp splitting into 4 dry nutlets or drupaceous, undivided or 4-lobed with usually 4 pyrenes, sometimes fewer by abortion, subtended by or enclosed within persistent calyx; endosperm present, scant or absent; embryo generally straight, rarely bent

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    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Lamiaceae
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).