Lauraceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 80. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Laurel Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Lauraceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000321. Accessed on: 10 Jul 2020'

General Information

Shrubs to tall trees , evergreen or rarely deciduous ( Cassytha a parasitic vine with leaves reduced to scales), usually aromatic. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, simple, without stipules, petiolate. Leaf blade: unlobed (unlobed or lobed in Sassafras ), margins entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites) in axils of main lateral veins (in Cinnamomum ). Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads), racemes, compound cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, bisexual only, or staminate and pistillate on different plants, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea ); stamens (3-)9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands near base; anthers 2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile, discoid or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent floral tube. Seed 1; endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Trees or shrubs (Cassytha a twining parasitic perennial herb with leaves reduced or absent), mostly evergreen (deciduous in temperate regions), sometimes dioecious. Bark and foliage usually aromatic. Leaves usually alternate, occasionally opposite or subopposite or verticillate, simple, usually entire, rarely lobed (Sassafras), mostly pinninerved and subpalmately veined, or often triplinerved, usually punctate and leathery, estipulate. Flowers in usually axillary, occasionally subterminal, panicles, spikes, racemes, or pseudoumbels, generally bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, mostly 3-merous, also 2-merous, small, greenish, yellowish, or white. Perianth biseriate, of usually 4 or 6 basally connate usually undifferentiated sepal-like segments, deciduous or persistent; perianth tube usually persisting as a cupule at base of fruit. Androecium typically of 4 whorls of 3 stamens each, adnate to perianth tube, innermost whorl rarely united, usually reduced to staminodes; filaments usually free, 3rd whorl usually bearing 2 usually sessile and distinct basal glandular protuberances; anthers basifixed, 2-celled or 4-celled at anthesis, those of 2 outer whorls mostly introrse, inner 3rd whorl extrorse, dehiscing by flaplike valves opening upward. Pistil 1; ovary usually superior, 1-loculed; ovule solitary, anatropous, pendulous, placentation parietal; style 1; stigma 1, occasionally 2- or 3-lobed. Fruit a drupe or berry usually surrounded at base by enlarged and often persistent perianth tube seated on a large receptacle or pedicel. Seed with large straight embryo; endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Morphology

      Seed pendulous, without endosperm; testa membranous; embryo straight; cotyledons thick, fleshy; radicle superior

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      Fruit baccate or drupaceous

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      Ovule solitary, pendulous

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      Ovary superior, rarely inferior, 1-celled; style terminal, simple; stigma small

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      Stamens typically in 4 whorls, often the fourth row suppressed or reduced to staminodes; filaments sometimes glandular at the base, very rarely the glands fused into a disk; anthers continuous with the filament, 2–or 4-valved, cells superposed or more or less collateral, opening from the base upwards by flaps, introrse or sometimes the third whorl extrorse

    • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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      Petals absent

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      Calyx usually inferior; tube sometimes enlarging in fruit; lobes usually 6, imbricate

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      Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or subopposite, coriaceous and evergreen, variously nerved; stipules absent

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      Trees or shrubs, very rarely twining parasitic herbs, all parts with aromatic oil-glands

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      • 1
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      Flowers small, greenish or yellowish, usually cymose or racemose, hermaphrodite, polygamous or dioecious, actinomorphic

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      Inflorescences of cymes or paniculately arranged cymes, racemes or heads; flowers rarely solitary, axillary, usually subterminal; bracts simple, involucrate, deciduous; bracteoles present or lacking

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      Flowers hermaphrodite, unisexual by abortion, greenish, yellowish or reddish, actinomorphic

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      Receptacle campanulate, cup-shaped or urceolate, rarely oblong, sometimes accrescent after flowering

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      Ovary superior, rarely inferior (in Africa, Hypodaphnis), 1-locular; ovule solitary, anatropous from near the apex; style terminal; stigma small, discoid, pointed or unilaterally widened, rarely 2–3-lobed

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      Fruit baccate or drupaceous, indehiscent, free or ± surrounded by the accrescent receptacle, or completely enclosed within it, often borne on a thickened fruiting pedicel

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      Perianth (2)3-merous in 2 whorls, not differentiated into calyx and corolla; tepals (4)6(8) free or ± connate, all similar or the outer ones smaller than the inner, imbricate or valvate in bud, deciduous or persistent

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      Stamens usually in 4 whorls inserted in the throat of the receptacle, or at the base of and opposite to the tepals, usually the fourth whorl, and sometimes the third whorl staminodal; filaments usually present and free, ± flattened, varying from very short to much longer than the anthers, those of the inner whorls mostly with a pair of globose glands at the sides or at the base (less often the glands attached to the receptacle, or sometimes the outer stamens with glands at the base); anthers basifixed, 2–4-celled, rarely 1-celled by confluence, cells ± collateral, or superposed (in 4-celled anthers), dehiscing from the base upwards; staminodes tepaloid, sagittate or ligulate

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      Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or subopposite, entire, coriaceous, rarely membranaceous, pinnately nerved or 3–5-nerved from near the base, usually net-veined, leaves reduced to small scales in Cassytha; stipules lacking

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      Evergreen monoecious, or dioecious polygamous trees or shrubs, rarely leafless twining parasitic herbs with haustoria (Cassytha), all parts usually with aromatic oil glands

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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      Seed 1; testa membranaceous to coriaceous, sometimes adnate to the pericarp and indistinct; endosperm lacking; embryo straight; radicle superior, cotyledons fleshy, sometimes connate

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      Ovary unicarpellate, sessile, free or in a few genera adhering to the calyx-tube and appearing inferior, 1-locular; ovule 1, pendulous, anatropous

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      Stamens and staminodes usually twice as many as perianth-segments, in 4 (rarely more) whorls; innermost whorl and occasionally 2 outer whorls reduced to staminodes; filaments of third whorl usually with 2 ± stalked or sessile glands on either side, the stalk sometimes adnate to the filament, rarely all or none with glands; anthers with 2-4 thecae opening by valves, those of the outer stamens introrse, those of the third series often extrorse

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Perianth-lobes usually ± equal, in 2 whorls of (2-)3, imbricate or in ± one whorl

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Seeds with endosperm; cotyledons large

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      Fruit a 1-seeded berry or dry but indehiscent

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Mostly evergreen trees (often tall with buttresses), shrubs or, in Cassytha, parasitic twiners with scale-like leaves

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      • 3
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      Flowers usually small, mostly green or yellow, regular, unisexual or hermaphrodite, in cymes, false umbels, heads, spikes, panicles or occasionally solitary; bracts small or absent or, in a few genera, forming an involucre at the base of the inflorescences or partial inflorescences

    • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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      Leaves simple, alternate or occasionally opposite, entire to slightly undulate or, in about six SPECIES, lobed, usually coriaceous; stipules absent

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      Literature

      SELECTED REFERENCES

      Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.

    • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 4
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      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Laurel Family

       Information From

      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • A Flora of North America Association
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • B
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • E Missouri Botanical Garden
      Lauraceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).