Linaceae DC. ex Perleb
  • Vers. Arzneikr. Pfl. 107. 1818. (May 1818)
  • Flax Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Linaceae DC. ex Perleb. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000339. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2021'

General Information

Herbs or shrubs. Stipules small or absent. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple; leaf blade margin entire. Inflorescences cymes or racemes. Flowers bisexual, regular. Sepals (4 or)5, distinct or basally connate, imbricate, persistent. Petals as many as and alternate with sepals, distinct or basally connate, convolute, basally often clawed, with 2-5 extrastaminal nectary glands or a disk. Stamens (4 or)5 or 10(or 15), in 1 whorl, alternate or opposite sepals, often some reduced to staminodes; filament bases connate into a tube. Ovary superior, with 2-5 carpels or seemingly 4-10-loculed by intrusion of a false septum, with 1 or 2 ovules per locule, placentation axile; styles as many as carpels, filiform, distinct or basally connate; stigmas subcapitate. Fruit usually a septicidal capsule or a drupe. Seeds with straight oily embryo and thin endosperm.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs or subshrubs [shrubs, trees, vines], annual, biennial, or perennial. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, simple; stipules absent or present as small, dark, spheric glands; petiole usually absent, rarely present; blade margins entire, serrate, or denticulate; venation pinnate. Inflorescences terminal, racemes, panicles, or cymes (rarely thyrses or corymbs in Linum) [spikes]. Flowers bisexual; perianth and androecium hypogynous; hypanthium absent; sepals 4–5, connate basally [distinct]; petals 4–5, distinct or coherent basally, imbricate or convolute, bases sometimes with appendages; nectary extrastaminal; stamens 4–5 [10], connate basally, filament tube and petal bases adherent or adnate [free]; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; pistil 1, 2–5-carpellate, ovary superior, 4–5-locular, placentation axile or apical-axile; ovules 2 per locule, anatropous; styles 2–5, distinct or partly connate; stigmas 2–5. Fruits capsules, dehiscence septicidal, or indehiscent or schizocarps breaking into 4 nutlets (Sclerolinon). Seeds 2 per locule, seed coat often mucilaginous.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Seeds compressed, shining, with or without endosperm; embryo straight, cotyledons flat

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    Sepals 4–5, free or partly united, imbricate

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    Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite

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    Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules present or absent, sometimes gland-like

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    Trees, shrubs, rarely herbs; branches sometimes climbing by hooks

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Fruit a septicidal capsule

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    Ovary superior, 3–5-celled, cells often again partially subdivided; ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous; styles 3–5, free or partly united, with simple capitate stigmas

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    Stamens as many as and alternate with the petals, sometimes alternating with small staminodes; filaments connate at base; anthers introrse, 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Petals free, contorted, fugacious

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    Styles 2–5, free or united at base

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    Fruit a capsule or drupe

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    Seeds with or without endosperm; embryo straight or slightly curved

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    • 2
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    Ovules pendulous, 2 per loculus

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    • 2
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    Ovary superior, 2–5-locular; each loculus often subdivided by a false septum

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees, shrubs, lianes or herbs

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules present, rarely absent, divided, entire or gland-like

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Sepals 4–5, imbricate, free or partially united

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    • 2
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    Petals 4–5, contorted in bud, free or partially united at base, often clawed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescence a terminal or axillary cyme, rarely flowers solitary

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    Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, hypogynous

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    • 2
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    Stamens 1–3 times as many as sepals; filaments united at base; staminodes sometimes present

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Petals (4) 5, contorted in bud, free or very rarely united at the base, often unguiculate, fugacious

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    Stamens twice (rarely three times) as many as the petals, or with the antipetalous whorl staminodial or absent; filaments ± united in the lower part, sometimes glandular at the base; anthers introrse, dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Ovary superior, with 2–5 2-ovulate loculi sometimes subdivided nearly to the placentae or alternating with an equal number of empty loculi; ovules collateral, pendulous; styles free or united at the base, slender, with simple capitate or clavate stigmas

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    Fruit a capsule dehiscing septicidally into (4) 5 2-seeded valves, or septicidally and loculicidally into (8) 10 1-seeded valves, or a drupe usually with fewer seeds than the 2–5 originally fertile loculi

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    Seeds ± compressed, shining, exarillate, with or without endosperm; embryo straight or slightly curved, with flat cotyledons

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    Trees, shrubs, lianes or herbs, often with tendrils on climbing shoots, glabrous or with an indumentum of simple hairs

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    Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, penninerved or 1-nerved; stipules divided or entire or gland-like, deciduous (rarely absent)

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    Flowers in terminal or axillary cymes (or rarely solitary), actinomorphic, bisexual, usually heterostylic

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Sepals (4) 5, imbricate, free or partially united

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Arbres'ou arbustes parfois lianeux, quelquefois munis de crochets ou herbes vivaces ou annuelles.'Feuilles'simples, alternes, rarement opposées, généralement penninervées; stipules extrapétiolaires, parfois glanduliformes, ou nulles.'Inflorescences'axillaires ou terminales, en cymes, corymbes, épis, panicules ou fascicules, rarement fleurs solitaires; bractées souvent présentes.'Fleurs'☿, régulières, assez souvent hétérostylées; calice à (4) 5 sépales imbriqués, persistants, rarement caducs; corolle à (4) 5 pétales libres, généralement tordus dans le bouton ou imbriqués, souvent ± onguiculés, persistants ou caducs, parfois pourvus d'appendices liguliformes; androcée à 5-∞ étamines en 1 ou plusieurs verticilles, toutes fertiles ou certaines staminodiales, exceptionnellement moins de 5 étamines; filets ± connés en tube à la base, rarement soudés extérieurement ou intérieurement à un disque annulaire; anthères dorsifixes, introrses, à déhiscence longitudinale; connectif parfois épais et ovale; ovaire supère, à 2-5 loges parfois subdivisées par des fausses cloisons ± complètes; ovules 2 par loge, collatéraux rarement superposés; styles en même nombre que les loges, libres ou ± soudés; stigmates terminaux, subcapités ou disciformes.'Fruits': capsules septicides souvent avec fausses cloisons ou drupes.'Graines ± comprimées, à arille ± développé ou nul, rarement ailées, albuminées ou exalbuminées.\n\t\t\tFamille des régions tropicales et tempérées, comptant environ 25 genres et 500 espèces; au Congo belge, 4 genres, 15 espèces, 5 variétés et 1 forme. Vu l'hétérogenéité de cette famille, des auteurs récents ont donné aux sous-familles de Winkler (l.c.) le rang de familles. Dans l'état actuel de nos connaissances, nous ne possédons cependant pas de données suffisantes pour justifier un tel démembrement. Aussi, nous avons maintenu le système de Winkler. Toutefois, en nous basant principalement sur le nombre d'ovules par loge, nous avons transféré des'Erythroxylaceae'aux'Linaceae'le genre'Aneulophus'Benth. à 2 ovules par loge et des'Linaceae'aux'Erythroxylaceae'le genre'Nectaropetalum Engl. à 1 ovule par loge.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES McDill, J. R. 2009. Molecular Phylogenetic Studies in the Linaceae and Linum, with Implications for Their Systematics and Historical Biogeography. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Texas. McDill, J. R. et al. 2009. The phylogeny of Linum and Linaceae subfamily Linoideae, with implications for their systematics, biogeography, and evolution of heterostyly. Syst. Bot. 34: 386–405. McDill, J. R. and B. B. Simpson. 2011. Molecular phylogenetics of Linaceae with complete generic sampling and data from two plastid genes. Bot. J. Linn Soc. 165: 64–83. Rogers, C. M. 1975. Relationships of Hesperolinon and Linum (Linaceae). Madroño 23: 153–159. Rogers, C. M. 1984. Linaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Ser. 2, part 12, pp. 1–54.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Flax Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Linaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).