Loranthaceae Juss.
  • Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 12: 292. 1808.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Loranthaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000350. Accessed on: 26 Nov 2020'

General Information

Shrubs, usually aerial hemiparasites on other seed plants, often spreading along host by runners (epicortical roots), more rarely terrestrial root-parasitic shrubs or trees, nodes not articulated, glabrous or hairy, hairs often stellate or verticillate. Leaves opposite or alternate, stipules absent; petiole often indistinct; leaf blade simple, usually pinnately veined, margin entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, spikes, or umbels (sometimes condensed into heads); bracts usually inconspicuous, sometimes forming conspicuous involucre (in Tolypanthus). Flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual (plants dioecious), 4-6-merous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, often conspicuous. Calyx adnate to the ovary, limb annular to cupular, entire or shortly toothed, persistent. Petals usually 4-6, free or connate, valvate. Disk usually inconspicuous to ± absent. Stamens as many as petals, opposite and adnate to them; anthers mostly basifixed, sometimes dorsifixed, 2-4-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal, locules sometimes with many transverse divisions so as to be multilocellate. Pollen oblate or suboblate, usually trilobate, or triangular. Ovary inferior, 1- or 3- or 4-loculed, without true ovules, embryo sacs originating from a central column or at the ovary base, integument absent. Style simple; stigma small. Fruit a berry (rarely a drupe or capsule), with a viscin layer (sticky mucilaginous tissue) outside the vascular bundles. Seed 1; testa absent; endosperm copious; embryo large.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Receptacle sometimes with a calyx-like rim (calyculus)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers mostly actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual, often brightly coloured

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves mostly opposite or whorled, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, rarely alternate; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Parasitic shrubs on trees, or rarely erect terrestrial trees or shrubs

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Disk present or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens the same number as the perianth-segments and inserted on them or at their base; anthers 2-celled or rarely 1-celled, sometimes divided into numerous small cells, opening lengthwise or by pores or transverse slits

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Perianth-segments valvate, free or united high up into a tube which is often split down one side

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Rudimentary ovary sometimes (not in Africa) present in male, staminodes in female

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, usually without a distinct placenta and ovule; style simple or absent, stigma more or less capitate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry or drupe

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seed solitary, without a distinct testa; endosperm present or absent; embryo large

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, simple, entire, often leathery or rather fleshy, estipulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual (rarely unisexual elsewhere), variously borne singly or in racemes, umbels or heads (elsewhere often in 3-flowered dichasia) in axils, at old nodes or terminally, in Africa often large and brightly coloured; bracts usually 1 per flower, cupular or unilateral, with a small to leafy limb

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens as many as petals, epipetalous; anther basifixed in Africa, 2–4-thecous, sometimes locellate, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary (receptacle) inferior, with 1–several obscure locules and lacking differentiated ovules; style and stigma simple

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Calyx rim-like to tubular, entire to shortly toothed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals free or united, 4–5 in Africa, valvate, radially symmetrical or tube opening with a unilateral split

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry in Africa (rarely dry and winged elsewhere)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds without a testa, normally surrounded by a sticky layer developed from fruit-wall outside the vascular bundles

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Shrubs hemiparasitic on the branches (or elsewhere rarely the roots) of other dicotyledons, attached by woody haustoria, with or without surface runners producing secondary haustoria, generally evergreen

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Plantes'généralement vertes, semi-ligneuses, hémiparasites sur les arbres ou les arbustes où elles se fixent par un (rarement plusieurs) suçoirs sur les branches, rarement sur les racines; branches souvent ramifiées en tous sens, parfois lianiformes.'Feuilles'alternes, opposées, subopposées ou verticillées, simples, entières, sans stipules, parfois réduites à des écailles.'Inflorescences'en cymes ou grappes, parfois réduites à des fleurs isolées.'Fleurs'généralement actinomorphes, montrant parfois une tendance ± accusée vers la zygomorphie, ☿, rarement ♂ ♀, 2-3-mères. Réceptacle ± cupuliforme, complètement soudé à l'ovaire chez les fleurs ♀ et se prolongeant au-dessus de lui en calicule persistant, entier ou ± lobé. Périgone supère, composé de 3-8 segments libres ou soudés, sépaloïdes ou pétaloïdes, valvaires dans le bouton. Étamines en nombre égal à celui des segments du périgone et opposées à eux, libres ou soudées au périgone; filets parfois réduits, absents chez'Viscum , souvent soudés ± longuement au périgone; anthères en général 2-thèques, à loges parfois cloisonnées. Parfois un disque. Ovaire infère, indistinct du réceptacle, à ovules généralement indistincts des placentas; style simple ou nul; stigmate souvent capité, parfois pelté ou lobé, rarement indistinct; 1 (3) sacs embryonnaires fertiles.'Fruit'bacciforme (chez toutes les espèces africaines) ou drupacé, globuleux, ellipsoïde ou piriforme, à péricarpe visqueux.'Graines 1 (3) le plus souvent albuminées, sans téguments distincts; embryon cylindrique ou polygonal, à court hypocotyle distinct et 2 (6) cotylédons.\n\t\t\tDeux sous-familles (Loranthoïdées et Viscoïdées), subdivisées en tribus et sous-tribus; les auteurs sont loin d'être d'accord sur le nombre de genres (32-62) et sur leurs subdivisions; espèces (1000 au moins) presque toutes tropicales ou subtropicales, parasitant les arbres ou arbustes, indigènes ou cultivés, appartenant aux familles les plus différentes, aussi bien dans les savanes que dans les forêts, les plantations et les jardins.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Loranthaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).