Malpighiaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 252. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Malpighia Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Malpighiaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000359. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

Shrubs, small trees, or woody lianas, pubescence a mix of medifixed (T-shaped) and simple hairs, monoecious or andro-dioecious. Leaves usually opposite, rarely alternate or 3-whorled, petiolate, simple, entire, glands often present either on petiole or on lower surface of leaves; stipules free and deciduous, or connate and ± persistent, sometimes reduced or absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, corymbose or umbellate, solitary or in panicles; pedicels articulate, 2-bracteolate at point of attachment. Flowers bisexual or staminate (in Ryssopterys), actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Sepals 5, polysepalous or gamosepalous, imbricate, rarely valvate, one or more large glandular at bases of outside members, rarely eglandular. Petals 5, typically clawed, margin ciliate, dentate or fimbriate. Disk inconspicuous. Stamens 10, obdiplostemonous, sometimes diadelphous with one stamen distinctly larger than others; filaments usually connate at base; anthers introrse, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 3-locular, placenta axile, 1-ovuled, pendulous and semianatropous in each locule; styles 3, or connate into 1, persistent. Fruit a schizocarp, carpels 3 or fewer, 1 seed per carpel; schizocarp splitting into winged samaras, indehiscent. Seed embryo large, erect or rarely curved; endosperm lacking.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, vines (twining, woody to herbaceous), or trees, perennial, evergreen or deciduous, synoecious [dioecious or functionally dioecious]; hairs unicellular, usually 2-armed and medifixed or submedifixed [basifixed or stellate]. Leaves opposite [whorled, subopposite, or alternate], simple; stipules present [absent]; petiole present [absent]; blade margins usually entire [lobed], sometimes pseudodentate [ciliate at location of marginal glands or with stout bristlelike hairs], often bearing multicellular glands on margin or abaxial [adaxial] surface; venation pinnate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, panicles, umbels, corymbs, or thyrses, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual [rarely unisexual], radially or bilaterally symmetric, mostly all chasmogamous, sometimes both chasmogamous and cleistogamous; perianth and androecium hypogynous [perigynous]; hypanthium absent [present]; sepals 5, distinct or connate basally, usually glandular, sometimes eglandular; petals (in chasmogamous flowers) 5, posterior (flag) petal often different from lateral 4, distinct, mostly clawed; nectary absent; stamens (in chasmogamous flowers) (2–5)[6–]10[–20], distinct or connate proximally, free; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits [apical or subapical pores or very short slits]; pistil 1, (2–)3-carpellate, carpels nearly distinct to completely connate in ovary [connate throughout], ovary superior, (2–)3-locular, placentation apical; ovule 1 per locule, anatropous; styles (in chasmogamous flowers) (1–)3 (usually as many as carpels but sometimes fewer by reduction [or connation]), distinct [partially to completely connate]; stigmas 1–3 (1 per style). Fruits drupes or schizocarps splitting into mericarps, mericarps nutlets, thin-walled cocci, or bearing wings [or vascularized setae] [berries or dry and indehiscent]. Seeds 1 per locule or mericarp.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Petals 5, clawed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Disk small

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10, hypogynous; filaments free or connate at the base; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Carpels usually 3, free or connate into a 3-celled ovary; cells 1-ovuled; styles usually separate and spreading

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruiting carpels mostly winged or carpels connate into a fleshy or woody drupe

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds without endosperm and with straight, curved or uncinate, rarely circinate embryo

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs or climbers, usually clothed with appressed medifixed hairs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, imbricate or rarely valvate, often biglandular outside

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, simple; a pair of glands often present at the base of the blade; stipules present or absent, sometimes connate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers mostly hermaphrodite, actinomorphic

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, syncarpous, 3(rarely 2, 4, or 5)-locular and -lobed, with 1 pendulous axile ovule in each locule; styles as many as the carpels with usually entire stigmas

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a schizocarp, usually winged (samara), rarely a fleshy drupe

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds with a large usually straight embryo, without endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10, with those of the outer series opposite the petals; filaments often connate at the base; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, introrse, basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-thecous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, free or connate at the base, persistent, often with glands outside

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, frequently clawed, free, imbricate, entire or with fringed or dentate margins

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence terminal or axillary, usually many-flowered and racemose (or more rarely flowers solitary); bracts and bracteoles present

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, bisexual (in African genera)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Mostly woody climbers, sometimes shrubs or small trees, with unicellular appressed (sometimes fork-shaped) medifixed ± stiff hairs

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, ternate or alternate, simple and entire, often with glands near the base of the lamina or on the petiole; stipules present or absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Mostly woody climbers, sometimes shrubs or small trees, with unicellular appressed (sometimes V-shaped) medifixed ± stiff hairs

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, ternate or alternate, simple and entire, often with glands near the base of the lamina or on the petiole; stipules present or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence terminal or axillary, usually many-flowered and racemose (or more rarely flowers solitary); bracts and bracteoles present

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, bisexual (in African genera)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, frequently unguiculate, free, imbricate, entire or with fringed or dentate margin

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, free or connate at the base, persistent, often with dorsal glands

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, syncarpous, 3 (rarely 2, 4, or 5) -locular and -lobed, with 1 pendulous axile ovule in each loculus; styles as many as the carpels, with usually entire stigmas

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens 10, obdiplostemonous, with filaments often connate at the base; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, introrse, basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-thecous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds with a large usually straight embryo, without endosperm

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit a schizocarp, usually winged (samara), rarely a fleshy drupe

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Arbres , arbustes, sous-arbustes, souvent lianes, généralement pourvus de poils médifixes.'Feuilles'généralement opposées, rarement alternes, parfois verticillées, simples et généralement entières, pétiolées, rarement sessiles, souvent munies de glandes sur la face inférieure ou le pétiole; stipules parfois présentes, inter- ou intrapétiolaires, petites, foliacées ou absentes; nervures latérales pennées.'Inflorescences'terminales, axillaires, rarement fleurs solitaires, en racèmes, corymbes ou ombelles, ou formant des panicules; bractées et bractéoles présentes.'Fleurs'☿, rarement ♂♀ et alors cleistogames et apétales; bractéoles 2, parfois munies à la base d'une glande; calice à préfloraison imbriquée, rarement valvaire, muni sur la face externe de 1-10 glandes ou sans glandes; sépales (3)5, libres ou ± soudés à la base; pétales 5, libres, généralement onguiculés, ± inégaux et ± dissemblables, à limbe plan ou concave, entier ou ± dentés-fimbriés; étamines 10, obdiplostémones, rarement 11-15 ou moins par avortement, parfois staminodiales; filets ± connés à la base; anthères à 2 loges à dehiscence longitudinale, parfois appendiculées au sommet; ovaire supère, généralement formé de (2)3(4) carpelles ± coalescents, rarement soudés en 1 ovaire 3-loculaire, parfois ailés ou à 1-3-5-7 côtes ou crêtes; 1 ovule par loge, pendant; funicule large; styles 3, parfois par avortement 2 ou 1, généralement libres, parfois partiellement connés; stigmates terminaux ou sublatéraux.'Fruits'généralement à (2)3(4) méricarpes samaroïdes, chacun à 1 ou plusieurs ailes ou crêtes, ou capsules déhiscentes.'Graines exalbumiiiées; cotylédons plats ou épais, souvent inégaux.\n\t\t\tFamille pantropicale, groupant ± 56 genres et ± 800 espèces, surtout d'Amérique tropicale; au Congo belge, 5 genres, 15 espèces, 1 variété et 1 forme.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Anderson, W. R. 2004. Malpighiaceae. In: N. P. Smith et al., eds. 2004. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton. Pp. 229–232. Anderson, W. R. 2013. Origins of Mexican Malpighiaceae. Acta Bot. Mex. 104: 107–156. Davis, C. C. and W. R. Anderson. 2010. A complete generic phylogeny of Malpighiaceae inferred from nucleotide sequence data and morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 97: 2031–2048. Niedenzu, F. 1928. Malpighiaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler, ed. 1900–1953. Das Pflanzenreich.... 107 vols. Berlin. Vols. 91, 93, 94[IV,141], pp. 1–870.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Malpighia Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Malpighiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).