Menispermaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 284–285. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Moonseed Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Menispermaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000375. Accessed on: 27 Jan 2021'

General Information

Vines and lianas [shrubs or trees], deciduous, woody at least at base, twining or clambering. Stems striate, without spines. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent; petioles present. Leaf blade palmately veined, often palmately lobed. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, fascicles, cymes, racemes, or panicles, flowers pedicillate. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on different plants, never showy; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous, segments distinct or fused, not showy, greenish white to white or cream, imbricate or valvate. Staminate flowers: sepals usually 6, not spurred; petals usually 6, sometimes absent, distinct or connate, ± concave, frequently minute; nectaries absent; stamens either opposite petals and equal in number, or numerous; filaments distinct or united; anthers dehiscing longitudinally [or transversely]; pistillodes sometimes present. Pistillate flowers: sepals (4-)6, sometimes reduced to 1; petals often 6 or reduced to 1, ± concave, usually minute; nectaries absent; staminodes frequently present; pistils 1-6; ovules 2, aborting to 1, amphitropous; style often recurved; stigma entire or lobed. Fruits drupes, straight or horseshoe-shaped; exocarp membranous; mesocarp ± pulpy; endocarp (stone) bony, often warty, ribbed. Seeds never stalked; endosperm present or absent; embryo usually curved.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Climbing or twining vines, rarely erect shrubs or small trees; indumentum of simple hairs, often absent. Stems striate, without spines; wood often with radial pith rays. Leaves alternate, spiral; stipules absent; petiole swollen at base and apex; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely trifoliolate, venation often palmate, less often pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, sometimes from old wood, rarely superaxillary or terminal, often umbelliform cymes, rarely reduced to single flower or flowers in a head on a discoid receptacle, arranged in thyrses, compound umbels, or racemelike; bracts usually small, rarely leafy (female Cocculus). Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious), usually small, inconspicuous, mostly pedicellate. Sepals often in whorls of (2 or)3(or 4), rarely reduced to 1 (female Stephania), sometimes spirally arranged (Hypserpa, Menispermum), free or less often connate, imbricate or valvate. Petals usually 3 or 6 in 1 or 2 whorls, rarely 2 or 4, sometimes reduced to 1 or absent, usually free, rarely connate, imbricate or valvate. Stamens (2-)6-8(to many); filaments free or connate, sometimes stamens completely fused into synandrium; anthers 1- or 2-locular or apparently 4-locular, dehiscing longitudinally or transversely. Staminodes sometimes present in female flowers. Carpels 1-6[to many], free, often swollen on one side; style initially terminal; stigma lobed or divided, rarely entire. Ovules 2 reducing to 1 by abortion. Pistillodes very small or absent in male flower. Fruit a drupe, straight or often horseshoe-shaped; exocarp membranous or leathery; mesocarp usually fleshy; endocarp bony or sometimes woody, rarely leathery, surface usually variously ornamented, rarely smooth, sides usually with central smooth and sunken condyle, rarely inconspicuous or lacking (e.g., Tinomiscium). Seed usually curved; seed coat thin; endosperm present or absent; embryo mostly curved (straight in Tinomiscium); radicle small, opposite to style scar; cotyledons flat and foliaceous or thick and semiterete.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Flowers small, inconspicuously coloured, unisexual, dioecious, actinomorphic, rarely slightly zygomorphic

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    Inflorescences cymose, paniculate, racemose, capitulate, fasciculate, or rarely the flowers solitary or geminate, axillary or borne on the leafless wood

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    • 1
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    Leaves petiolate, sometimes peltate, alternate, exstipulate, usually simple, rarely trifoliolate, or palmately lobed and nerved

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    Twining, or rarely erect shrubs or small trees, with the wood in cross-section showing broad medullary rays

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Fruiting carpels drupaceous, with the scar of the style subterminal or near the base by excentric growth, sessile or stipitate; exocarp membranous or subcoriaceous, mesocarp more or less pulpy, endocarp often chartaceous or bony, rugose, tuberculate or ribbed; seed often curved in the form of a horseshoe, with uniform or ruminate endosperm or without endosperm; embryo often curved, with a small radicle and flat or semi–terete cotyledons

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Female flowers: sepals and petals as in male flowers; staminodes present or absent; carpels 3–6 or more, rarely 1, free, sessile or stipitate; styles terminal or subterminal, rarely recurved; stigma terminal, entire or lobed; ovules 2, soon reduced to 1 by abortion, attached to the ventral suture

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
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    Male flowers: sepals 3–12 or more, rarely 1, generally in series, or slightly connate, imbricate or rarely valvate, the outer smaller; petals 1–6, usually in series, minute or absent, free, or rarely connate, usually imbricate; stamens 3–6 or indefinite, rarely 2, when few opposite the sepals, free or variously united; anthers short

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Male flowers: sepals 3–12 or more, rarely 1, free or slightly connate, imbricate or valvate; petals 1–6 or absent, free or connate, usually imbricate; stamens 3–6 or indefinite, rarely 2, free or variously united

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers small, actinomorphic, rarely slightly irregular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Fruiting carpels drupaceous, with the scar of the style subterminal or near the base by excentric growth; exocarp membranous or subcoriaceous, mesocarp more or less pulpy, endocarp often chartaceous or bony, rugose, tuberculate or ribbed and with the septum of the condyle,2 if any, perforated or not

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Female flowers: sepals and petals generally as in male flowers, sometimes not so numerous; staminodes present or absent; carpels 3–6 or more, rarely 1, free; ovules 2, soon reduced to 1 by abortion, attached to the ventral suture

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds often curved and horseshoe-shaped, with uniform or ruminate endosperm, or without endosperm

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Inflorescence various, many-flowered, the flowers rarely solitary or geminate, axillary or borne on the leafless wood

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    • 2
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    Wood in cross-section showing broad medullary rays

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves alternate, petiolate, exstipulate, sometimes peltate, without stipules, usually simple, entire or lobed

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Twining or rarely erect shrubs or small trees, dioecious

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruiting carpels drupaceous, with the scar of the style subterminal or near the base by excentric growth; exocarp membranaceous or subcoriaceous, mesocarp more or less pulpy, endocarp often chartaceous or bony, rugose, tuberculate or ribbed

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flowers ?: sepals and petals generally as in ? flowers, sometimes not so numerous; staminodes absent or present; carpels 3–6 or more, rarely 1, free; ovules 2, soon reduced to 1 by abortion, attached to the ventral suture

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Seed often curved and horseshoe-shaped, with uniform or ruminate endosperm, or without endosperm

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Twining or rarely erect shrubs or small trees, dioecious, with the wood in cross-section showing broad medullary rays

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Leaves petiolate, sometimes peltate, without stipules, usually simple, entire or lobed

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Inflorescences various, many-flowered, rarely the flowers solitary or geminate, axillary or borne on the leafless wood

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 3
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    Flowers small, unisexual, regular, rarely slightly irregular

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 3
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    Flowers ?: sepals 3–12 or more, rarely 1, free or slightly connate, imbricate or valvate; petals 1–6 or absent, free or connate, usually imbricate; stamens 3–6 or indefinite, rarely 2, free or variously united

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Lianes'ou arbustes dioïques; tiges généralement grimpantes et le plus souvent volubiles, rarement dressées, ligneuses ou herbacées; bois, en coupe transversale, montrant de larges rayons médullaires.'Feuilles'alternes, simples, rarement composées, très rarement stipulées, pétio-lées; limbe entier, quelquefois palmatilobé, penninervé ou plus souvent palmatinervé.'Inflorescences'en cymes, fascicules, racèmes ou panicules, rarement fleurs solitaires axillaires; fleurs petites, 3-mères, actinomorphes, rarement zygomorphes, faiblement colorées en vert ou jaune; sépales en 2-4 verticilles, libres ou rarement soudés, imbriqués ou rarement valvaires, généralement inégaux; pétales disposés très souvent en 2 verticilles, rarement en 1 verticille ou absents, libres ou rarement soudés, imbriqués ou rarement valvaires.'Fleurs'♂ : étamines (3) 6 et obstémones, rarement ∞, libres ou à filets ± soudés; anthères courtes, libres ou en synandrie.'Fleurs'♀ : staminodes présents ou absents; carpelles libres, (1) 3 (6) ou ∞, sessiles ou stipités; styles terminaux ou subterminaux, souvent récurvés; stigmates entiers ou lobés; ovules 2, quelquefois 1, attachés à la suture ventrale.'Fruits'apocarpiques : méri-carpes drupacés, libres; exocarpe membraneux ou subcoriace; mésocarpe ± pulpeux; endocarpe souvent chartacé ou ligneux, rugueux ou tubercule, présentant fréquemment à la face ventrale un condyle de forme variable, entourant une petite cavité.'Graines souvent courbes, en forme de fer à cheval ou spiralées, avec albumen uniforme ou ruminé ou sans albumen; embryon souvent courbe avec une petite radicule et des cotylédons plats ou semi-cylindriques.\n\t\t\tFamille pantropicale comprenant 65 genres et environ 350 espèces. En Afrique tropicale, cette famille est représentée par 22 genres et environ 65 espèces; parmi ceux-ci, 18 genres, 38 espèces et 4 variétés sont connus au Congo belge.\n\t\t\tLa diœcie des Ménispermacées rend leur systématique malaisée. De plus, les caractères végétatifs étant très variables, un nombre considérable d'espèces ont été décrites et basées la plupart du temps sur du matériel incomplet.\n\t\t\tLes faisceaux libéro-ligneux dans la tige sont toujours isolés et protégés par des fibres ou des cellules scléreuses. Les espèces grimpantes montrent souvent des anomalies de structure, et présentent un morcellement caractéristique du cylindre ligneux.\n\t\t\tCertaines espèces étrangères au Congo belge sont très connues au point de vue pharmaceutique :'Jateorhiza palmata'Lam. fournit le Colombo ;'Anamirta cocculus'(L.) Wright donne les Coques du Levant;'Chondodendron tomentosum'Ruiz et Pav. fournit la Pareira Brava;'Tinospora bakis'Miers donne le Bakis et'Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, le Sangol.

  • Provided by: [B].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Diels, F. L. E. 1910. Menispermaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler, ed. 1900-1953. Das Pflanzenreich.... 107 vols. Berlin. Vol. 46[IV,94], pp. 334-345. Ernst, W. R. 1964. The genera of Berberidaceae, Lardizabalaceae, and Menispermaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 1-35.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Moonseed Family

     Information From

    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Menispermaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).