Moraceae Gaudich.
  • Gen. Pl. 13. 1835.
  • Mulberry Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Moraceae Gaudich. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000395. Accessed on: 27 Nov 2020'

General Information

Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines , deciduous or evergreen, frequently with milky sap. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple; stipules present, persistent or caducous; petiole adaxially grooved. Leaf blade: margins entire, toothed, or lobed; venation pinnate or with 3-5 basal palmate veins; cystoliths often present in epidermal cells. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or capitula. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, small, occasionally on flattened torus, more often enclosed within fleshy, flask-shaped receptacle (syconium); sepals 2-6, distinct or partly connate (vestigial in Brosimum ). Staminate flowers: stamens equal in number to sepals or calyx lobes and opposite them, straight or inflexed; anthers 1-2-locular. Pistillate flowers: sepals or calyx lobes 4, ± connate; pistils 1, 1-2-carpellate; ovary 1, superior or inferior, 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles or style branches 1-2; stigmas 1-2, entire. Fruits multiple (syncarps); individual achenes or drupelets partly or completely enclosed by enlarged common receptacle or by individual calyces.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Trees, shrubs, vines, or rarely herbs, frequently with milky or watery latex, sometimes spiny. Stipules present, frequently caducous. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; petiole often present and well-defined; leaf blade simple, sometimes with cystoliths, margin entire or palmately lobed, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary, frequently paired, racemose, spicate, capitate, or rarely cymose, sometimes a fig or syconium with flowers completely enclosed within a hollow receptacle. Flowers unisexual (plants monoecious or dioecious), small to very small. Calyx lobes (1 or)2-4(-8), free or connate, imbricate or valvate. Corolla absent. Male flowers: stamens as many as and opposite to calyx lobes (except in Artocarpus), straight or inflexed in bud; anthers 1- or 2-loculed, crescent-shaped to top-shaped; pistillode (rudimentary sterile pistil) often present. Female flowers: calyx lobes usually 4; ovary superior, semi-inferior, or inferior, 1(or 2)-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous or campylotropous; style branches 1 or 2; stigmas usually filiform. Fruit usually a drupe, rarely an achene, enveloped by an enlarged calyx and/or immersed in a fleshy receptacle, often joined into a syncarp. Seed solitary; endosperm present or absent.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple; stipules paired, often caducous and leaving a scar

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Trees or shrubs or rarely herbs, often with milky juice

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Calyx-lobes usually 4, sometimes reduced, imbricate or valvate

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    Flowers much reduced, often in heads, disks or hollow receptacles, unisexual

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    Stamens usually equal in number and opposite to the sepals; filaments inflexed or erect in bud; anthers 2-celled

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    Female flower with superior or inferior ovary, of 2 carpels, one often abortive, usually 1-celled; styles mostly 2, filiform; ovule solitary, pendulous, rarely basal and erect

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    Fruit a small achene, nut or drupe

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    Seed with or without endosperm, often with curved embryo

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    Inflorescence bisexual or unisexual, spicate, globose, clavate- or discoid-capitate, urceolate, sometimes uniflorous

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    Staminate flowers with 2–6 tepals or perianth lacking; stamens 1–4

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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, dioecious or monoecious; sap milky, sometimes watery (but not turning black)

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    Leaves spirally or distichously arranged, sometimes subopposite or subverticillate, entire or sometimes pinnately or palmately incised, stipulate

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    Seed large and without endosperm or small with endosperm, embryo various

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    Pistillate flowers with 2–6 tepals or perianth lacking; pistil 1; ovary free or adnate to the perianth; stigmas 1 or 2, ovule 1, apically attached

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    Fruit achene-like, drupaceous (dehiscent or not), or forming a drupaceous whole with the fleshy perianth or with the fleshy receptacle as well

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves in spirals or distichous, sometimes subopposite or subverticillate, entire or sometimes pinnately or palmately incised, stipulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, dioecious or monoecious; sap milky, sometimes watery (but not turning black)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Staminate flowers with 2–6 tepals or perianth lacking; stamens 1–4

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescences bisexual or unisexual, spicate, globose-, clavate- or discoid-capitate, urceolate or uniflorous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit achene-like, drupaceous (dehiscent or not), or forming a drupaceous whole with the fleshy perianth or with the fleshy receptacle as well

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Pistillate flowers with 2–6 tepals or perianth lacking; pistil 1; ovary free or adnate to the perianth; stigmas 1–2; ovule 1, attached apically

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    Seed large without endosperm or small with endosperm; embryo various

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    Arbres , arbustes ou herbes, monoïques ou dioïques, parfois polygames, à tubes laticifères.'Feuilles'alternes simples, penni- ou palminerves, parfois très grandes, à stipules en général caduques, latérales ou axillaires et laissant, dans ce cas, une cicatrice annulaire.'Fleurs'toujours 1-sexuées, réunies en cymes ± contractées 1- ou 2-sexuées, formant souvent des capitules denses sur des réceptacles globuleux, convexes, plans ou concaves, bordés parfois de bractées ou appendices; fleurs ♀ parfois solitaires.'Fleurs'♂ et ♀ souvent très différentes; périgone de 4-2 segments libres ou ± soudés, souvent réduit ou nul; étamines 1-4, à filament réfléchi ou droit dans le bouton, accompagnées ou non d'un pistillode; ovaire 2-carpellaire, 1-loculaire à 1 ovule en général pendant; style 1-2.'Fruits': akènes, baies ou drupes, en général petits, mais souvent réunis en syncarpe (infrutescences) ± volumineux et ± charnus, avec intervention du réceptacle ou du périgone ± accrescent.'Graines avec ou sans albumen; embryon souvent recourbé, à cotylédons souvent inégaux.\n\t\t\tEnviron 1200 espèces presque toutes tropicales; au Congo belge 15 genres dont 2 introduits et 146 espèces.\n\t\t\tFamille très importante au point de vue scientifique par la très grande diversité de ses organes (surtout de ses inflorescences), de ses curieuses particularités écologiques et par le rôle important joué dans les associations par beaucoup de ses espèces, ainsi qu'au point de vue pratique en raison des usages divers de certaines d'entre elles.\n\t\t\tSont à signaler : les inflorescences et les fruits composés (parfois énormes) des genres'Musanga, Treculia, Artocarpus, Ficus'(les figues); les adaptations des'Ficus'à l'épiphytisme et leur extraordinaire symbiose avec les insectes (espèces du genre'Blastophaga ) assurant leur pollinisation.'Musanga smithii , le parasolier, partout répandu, joue un rôle considérable dans le reboisement naturel, et fournit une sève potable,'Chlorophora excelsa ,'Treculia africana ,'Bosqueia angolensis ,'Antiaris \n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t Welwitschii'et de nombreux'Ficus'sont, parmi les grands arbres, des éléments importants de la forêt équatoriale, dont quelques-uns (Chlorophora surtout) livrent des bois précieux. Un'Cecropia , introduit d'Amérique et naturalisé, présente des adaptations myrmécophiles célèbres.\n\t\t\tLes graines de'Treculia africana'et de'Bosqueia angolensis'sont alimentaires. Comme producteur de caoutchouc, certains'Ficus'et surtout'Castilloa elastica'Cerv. ont été introduits mais ont été complètement supplantés par l' Hevea . Enfin, l'écorce de plusieurs'Ficus'et de l' Antiaris sert aux indigènes à préparer des tissus pour vêtements.

  • Provided by: [D].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Engler, H. G. A. 1888b. Moraceae. In: H. G. A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. 1887-1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien.... 254 fasc. Leipzig. Fasc. 18[III,1], pp. 66-96. Rohwer, J. G. 1993b. Moraceae. In: K. Kubutzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 2, pp. 438-453. Tomlinson, P. B. 1980. The Biology of Trees Native to Tropical Florida. Allston, Mass.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Mulberry Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Moraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).