Pandanaceae R.Br.
  • Prodr. 340. 1810. (27 Mar 1810)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Pandanaceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000439. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or woody lianas, terrestrial, evergreen, dioecious. Stems simple or often bifurcately branched, ringed with persistent annular leaf scars, often producing adventitious prop roots; aerial roots present or absent. Vegetative reproduction by suckers present or absent. Leaves simple, numerous, spirally arranged at apex of stems and branches, sessile, linear to lanceolate, leathery, often lustrous or glaucous, glabrous, keeled abaxially, parallel veined, with numerous horizontal secondary veins, base open-sheathed and amplexicaul, margin and midrib abaxially often spinulose, apex often long acuminate. Male inflorescences axillary and terminal, compound, bracteate, comprising several-branched racemes or panicles with crowded flowers on spicate ultimate branches; spathes often enlarged at apex, white or colored. Perianth absent. Male flowers sessile (pedicellate in Sararanga Hemsley), with pistillode sometimes present; stamens numerous, fasciculate, arising on rachises or spadix branches; filaments smooth (Pandanus) or papillose (Freycinetia), seemingly branched; anthers basifixed, 2-celled with 4 pollen sacs, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, connective often apiculate; pollen grains often spinulose. Female inflorescences terminal, solitary or in spikes, racemes, or capitula, short, bracteate, with crowded flowers, often pendulous in fruit. Female flowers with or without staminodes; pistils free or aggregated and appressed to adjacent pistils forming 1- to many-carpelled phalanges or clusters; ovary superior, 1- to several locular; ovules solitary to numerous, anatropous, placentation basal or parietal; style absent or very short; stigmas 1 or more, subsessile, glandular-papillose. Fruit a berry (Freycinetia) or drupe (Pandanus), when drupaceous a multiple structure (syncarp) composed of 2-20 woody, or basally fleshy or fibrous, cylindric to globose, connate, free or often crowded and clustered carpels, each cluster of carpels termed a "phalange," with mesocarp fibrous and often pithy or hollow above, fibrous and fleshy below; endocarp membranous or evanescent. Seeds 1 to numerous, minute, often fusiform; testa membranous (Pandanus) or crustose (Freycinetia); endosperm oily and fleshy, or starchy; strophiole originating from raphe sometimes present; embryo basal, minute; germination often epigeal.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Male flower: stamens numerous; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-celled, the cells sometimes again once divided

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    Perianth rudimentary or absent

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    Syncarps oblong to globose; mature carpels woody, drupaceous or baccate, pulpy inside

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    Ovules solitary to many, basal or parietal

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    Ovary superior, 1-celled, free or confluent with adjacent ovaries into bundles with separate or united stigmas; style very short or absent

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    Female flower: staminodes absent or small and hypogynous or adnate to the base of the ovary

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    Flowers dioecious, paniculate or densely crowded into spadices, the latter axillary and terminal, fasciculate or paniculate, enclosed at first by spathaceous sometimes coloured or leafy bracts

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    Seeds minute, with fleshy endosperm and minute embryo

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    Leaves in 4 rows or spirally arranged and crowded towards the top of the shoots, linear, sheathing at the base, keeled, mostly spinulose on the margins and keel

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    Trees or shrubs, trunk and branches often with aerial roots

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    Male flowers: perianth absent or vestigial; stamens few-numerous, in corymbs or umbels; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-thecous, opening lengthwise by slits; ovary vestigial or absent

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    Seeds free (>i>Freycinetia, Sararanga) or inseparable from the endocarp (>i>Pandanus); testa membranous and delicate; endosperm white, homogeneous; embryo sub-basal

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    Female flowers with 1-several ovaries, lacking perianth parts, sometimes with staminodia; ovary 1-locular, free or confluent with adjacent ovaries into bundles, but always with separate stigmas corresponding with the number of locules; style absent or vestigial; stigma appressed or erect, lined with glandular hairs hardening at maturity, various in form but often rounded-cordate, V- or U-shaped, horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped, with a basal groove corresponding in position to the location of the placenta, i.e. directly above it; staminodes, if present, hypogynous and ± adnate to the ovary (or compound ovary) wall; ovules anatropous, solitary (in >i>Pandanus) or many (in >i>Freycinetia), parietal

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    Cephalia (fruiting heads) globose to oblong, solitary or in a spike, composed of ripened fruits—either drupes or clusters of partly fused drupes (phalanges) in >i>Pandanus, or berries (in >i>Freycinetia); pericarp thin, coriaceous to fleshy or firm; mesocarp fibrous, with spongy pith, fleshy (in >i>Pandanus) or gelatinous-fleshy (in >i>Freycinetia); endocarp fibrous and bony (in >i>Pandanus) to thin and lignified (>i>Sararanga) to membranous (>i>Freycinetia), enclosing the locule(s) in an integral structure; all or only some — but at least the interior ones—locules fertile

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    Trees or shrubs, less often lianas or epiphytic shrubs, often with stilt-roots or aerial roots from the lower trunk, and sometimes from the branches; branches woody, with annular leaf-scars

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    Leaves spirally arranged in 3 or 2 rows (the latter appearing as 4 rows), crowded towards the apices of the branches, simple, lanceolate or linear, sheathing at the base, coriaceous, keeled and often 3-plicate, usually with small prickles on the midrib beneath, on the margins, and sometimes on the distal ventral pleats as well

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    Flowers unisexual, crowded in branched or unbranched spadices (panicles in Sararanga); inflorescences terminal or terminating lateral shoots, enclosed at first by spathaceous and often coloured bracts

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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Pandanaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).