Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
  • Fl. Calvados (ed. 2) 334. 1806. (30 May 1806)
  • Passionflower Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000442. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2021'

General Information

Vines [shrubs, trees], perennial [rarely annual], woody or herbaceous, with [without] tendrils; axils with multiple axillary buds, primary axillary bud often developing into inflorescence or tendril; bark smooth to rough or corky. Leaves alternate, simple [rarely compound], often of floral tube as 1–7[–ca. 15] series of filaments or outgrowths, sometimes membranous; extrastaminal nectary disc often present; stamens [4–]5[–ca. 25], usually borne on androgynophore [hypanthium]; ovary superior, [2–]3[–5]-carpellate, 1-locular, usually borne on androgynophore; placentation parietal; styles distinct [variously connate]; stigmas capitate or clavate to reniform, sometimes 2-lobed [fimbriate]. Fruits baccate or capsular. Seeds (1–)3–ca. 200, arillate, usually compressed, surface usually pitted to reticulate or grooved.

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    Climbing herbs or lianas with axillary tendrils, rarely shrubs or trees, vegetative ramification through a supra-axillary bud. Leaves alternate (rarely subopposite), spirally arranged, simple or rarely compound, stipulate or not, petiolate, petiole or base of blade often with 1 to many glands; leaf blade entire or lobed, venation pinnate or palmate, often with glands on margin and abaxial surface. Inflorescence cymose, axillary, sessile or pedunculate, primary axis often a tendril, secondary axis often reduced; bracts minute to foliaceous, sometimes glandular. Pedicels articulate distal to bracts. Flowers mostly actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally unisexual, or polygamous; perianth persistent, segments free or partially fused at base. Sepals (3-)5(or 6). Petals (3-)5(or 6), imbricate. Corona inserted on hypanthium, composed of filaments or hairs often in multiple series. Stamens (4 or)5(-60), inserted on androgynophore or at base of hypanthium; filaments free to base or sometimes partially fused; anthers dorsifixed, 2-celled, dehiscing via longitudinal slits, sometimes with apical appendage. Ovary (1-)3(-5)-carpellate, superior, 1-loculed, sessile or stipitate on elongate androgynophore; placentation parietal; ovules many, anatropous; styles (1-)3(-5), free to partially fused at base; stigmas globose, capitate, papillate, or divided. Fruit a berry or loculicidally 3(-5)-valved capsule. Seeds numerous, compressed, often beaked, enclosed by fleshy aril; testa reticulate or pitted; endosperm copious, oily; embryo straight; cotyledons foliaceous.

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    Morphology

    Stamens 5 or more, hypogynous or perigynous, shortly united or in bundles, sometimes springing from the gynophore; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Seeds with pitted testa, surrounded by a pulpy aril; endosperm fleshy; embryo large, straight

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    Fruit a capsule or berry, indehiscent or loculicidally 3-valved

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    Ovary superior, 1-celled, with 3 or rarely 4–5 parietal placentas; ovules usually numerous; styles free or united; stigmas often capitate

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    Herbaceous climbers bearing tendrils, or erect trees or shrubs

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    Leaves alternate, entire or lobed, often with a glandular petiole; stipules usually small and deciduous

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual

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    Sepals 5, imbricate, persistent, free or partially united

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    Petals 5, rarely absent, free or shortly united, imbricate

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    Corona of one or more rows of thread-like processes or scales, or annular

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    Seeds 1–?, on long funicles, ovate, compressed, rarely oblong or tumid, mostly arillate, with a furrowed and ridged seed-coat; endosperm fleshy, more or less abundant

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    Embryo large, with leafy cotyledons and cylindrical radicle

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    Disk-glands sometimes present

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    Fruit baccaceous or a 3–5-valved capsule, usually many-seeded

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    male flowers often with a vestigial ovary

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    Calyx-tube short or ± elongate, coriaceous or herbaceous; lobes 3–? (3–6 in FZ species), valvate or imbricate, persisting with the tube

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    female flowers usually with staminodes

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    Hypanthium ± developed, broad or narrow

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    Stamens 5, rarely 6–10 or ?; filaments free or partially connate into a tube, inserted at the base of the flower or on an androgynophore; anthers oblong or linear, basifixed or dorsifixed, introrse, 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, sometimes apiculate

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    Ovary superior, 3–5(6)-carpellar, 1-locular, often stipitate (borne on an androgynophore) or rarely subsessile; ovules many or few, on 3–5(6) parietal placentas, pendulous, anatropous, with the funicle elongate; styles 1 or 3-5, with capitate or clavate, sometimes fimbriate stigmas

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    Petals 0 or as many as the calyx-lobes, inserted at the base or mouth of the calyx-tube or in an intermediate position, the margin entire or fimbriate

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    Corona annular, single or double, rarely 0, tubular and often fimbriate at the margin with the laciniae erect or radiant, or reduced to a rim of hairs

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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, erect or more usually tendrillous climbers, sometimes with a napiform root

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    Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire or variously lobed or 3–7-foliolate, sessile or petiolate, often with glands at the margin and on the abaxial surface of the lamina and at the apex of the petiole

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    Stipules 0 or 2, caducous or persistent

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    False stipules present in some species of Basananthe

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    Tendrils, when present, axillary (sterile peduncles) or at the apex of the floriferous peduncle

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    Flowers solitary, in racemes or in paniculate cymes, pedicellate, the pedicel often articulate and 3-bracteolate

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual or polygamous, actinomorphic

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    Inflorescences axillary, either cymose (>i>Passifloreae), ending in 1–several tendrils or not, or racemose (>i>Paropsieae); bracts and bracteoles usually small

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    Climbers or sometimes erect herbs, mostly provided with axillary tendrils (tribe Passifloreae), or erect shrubs or trees (tribe >i>Paropsieae), glabrous or hairy, rarely thorny

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    Leaves mostly alternate, simple or compound, entire or lobed, often with glands on petiole and blade; stipules small, sometimes caducous

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or functionally unisexual (then plants often dioecious or polygamous); stipe articulate to pedicel; hypanthium saucer-shaped to tubiform

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    Sepals 4–5(–6), imbricate, free or partially connate >i>(Adenia in part), often persistent

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    Petals (3–)4–5(–6), imbricate, rarely absent

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    Corona extrastaminal, inserted on the hypanthium, various, composed of hairs, or of 1 or more whorls of thread-like processes or scales, or tubiform or cup-shaped, or absent (>i>Adenia in part)

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    Disk mostly extrastaminal, annular or composed of 5 mostly strap-shaped parts (>i>Adenia), or absent

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    Stamens 4-many, inserted on the hypanthium or on an androgynophore, if few alternipetalous, free or partially connate; anthers 2-thecous, basifixed to dorsifixed, versatile or not, sometimes apiculate, opening lengthwise

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    Ovary superior, sessile or on a gynophore or androgynophore, 1-locular, 3–5(–6)-carpellate, with 3–5(–6) parietal placentas; ovules mostly numerous, anatropous; styles 1 or 3–5, very short to distinct, free or partially united; stigma capitate to subglobose, sometimes much divided (>i>Adenia)

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    Fruit a loculicidally 3–5-valved capsule, or berry-like

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    Seeds mostly compressed, enveloped by a membranous or mostly pulpy aril; funicles often distinct; testa crustaceous, mostly pitted; endosperm horny; embryo large, straight, with foliaceous cotyledons

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    Lianes'ou plantes herbacées généralement pourvues de vrilles (tribu des Passifloreae), ou arbustes ou arbres sans vrilles (tribu des Paropsieae), glabres ou non, rarement épineux.'Feuilles'généralement alternes, pétiolées, simples et entières, ou lobées, ou composées-digitées, souvent pourvues de glandes au sommet du pétiole ou sur le limbe, à stipules ordinairement petites et souvent caduques. Inflorescences axillaires, cymeuses et se terminant ou non en une ou plusieurs vrilles, ou en fascicules, ou fleurs solitaires ; bractées et bractéoles généralement petites.'Fleurs'hermaphrodites ou unisexuées (plantes souvent dioïques, rarement monoïques ou polygames), actinomorphes, sessiles ou généralement pédicellées, souvent stipitées et avec une articulation entre le pédicelle et le stipe ; hypanthium cupuliforme à tubuleux ; sépales 4-5(-6), imbriqués, libres ou partiellement connés ; pétales 1-2 ou 4-5(-6-7), imbriqués, rarement absents ; couronne composée d'un ou plusieurs verticilles de filaments ou d'écaillés, ou tubuleuse ou cupuliforme, parfois absente ; disque composé d'un anneau nectarifère ou de 5 glandes à la base de l'hypanthium, ou absent ; étamines 4- ∞, insérées sur l'hypanthium ou sur un androgynophore ; filets libres ou partiellement connés entre eux ; anthères à 2 thèques, basifixes ou dorsifixes, versatiles ou non. parfois apiculées, à déhiscence longitudinale ; ovaire supère, sessile ou porté sur un gynophore ou un androgynophore, uniloculaire, à 3-5(-6) placentas pariétaux ; ovules généralement nombreux, anatropes ; styles 1 ou (2-)3-5(-6), libres ou partiellement connés ; stigmates capités à subglobuleux, parfois laciniés.'Fruits'bacciformes ou capsules à déhiscence loculicide en 3(-5)-valves.'Graines souvent comprimées, arillées, à testa souvent fovéolé ; endosperme charnu ; cotylédons foliacés.\n\t\t\tFamille principalement tropicale comprenant 16 genres et environ 500 espèces. Elle est composée de 2 tribus (fide W. de Wilde, Blumea 19 : 99-104, 1971) : la tribu des Paropsieae comprenant 6 genres, dont 4 sont représentés dans l'aire de la Flore, et la tribu des Passifloreae comprenant 10 genres, dont seulement 4 sont représentés en Afrique centrale.\n\t\t\tLa tribu des Paropsieae a été traitée dans la Flore d'Afrique centrale, en 1976, comme faisant partie de la famille des Flacourtiaceae (fide E. Gilg. in Engl. & Prantl., Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 21 : 413-416. 1925). A cette époque, H. Sleumer y reconnaissait 3 genres : Barteria Hook. f. (1 espèce et 2 sous-espèces), Paropsia Noronha ex Thouars (3 espèces) et Paropsiopsis Engl. (1 espèce). Un quatrième genre monospécifique, Viridivia Hemsley & Verdc., a été récemment trouvé au Shaba (Zaïre). Seul ce dernier est décrit ici. Pour les trois autres genres de Paropsieae, cités plus haut, nous renvoyons le lecteur à la publication de H. Sleumer (avec la collaboration de P. Bamps), Flore d'Afrique centrale (Zaïre-Rwanda-Burundi), Spermatophytes, Flacourtiaceae (seconde partie) : 22-33 (1976). Les 4 genres de Paropsieae (présents dans l'aire de la Flore) ont toutefois été inclus dans la clé des genres.\n\t\t\tLe genre Passiflora L., principalement néotropical, est représenté dans l'aire de la Flore par 5 espèces naturalisées, mais quelques autres espèces s'y rencontrent également à l'état cultivé.\n\t\t\tLes trois autres genres de la tribu des Passiflorae en Afrique centrale sont Efulensia C.H. Wright avec 2 espèces, Basananthe Peyritsch avec 9 espèces et Adenia Forssk. avec 14 espèces et 2 sous-espèces.\n\t\t\tLes planches 1 et 3, ainsi que la figure 1, ont été reproduites à partir de «Flora of Tropical East Africa», avec l'aimable autorisation de la Direction des «Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew».

  • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES de Wilde, W. J. J. O. 1971. The systematic position of the Paropsieae, in particular the genus Ancistrothyrsus, and a key to the genera of Passifloraceae. Blumea 14: 99–104. de Wilde, W. J. J. O. 1974. The genera of tribe Passifloreae (Passifloraceae) with special reference to flower morphology. Blumea 22: 37–50. Feuillet, C. and J. M. MacDougal. 2007. Passifloraceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 10+ vols. Berlin. Vol. 9, pp. 270–281. Killip, E. P. 1938. The American Species of Passifloraceae. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 19.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Passionflower Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Passifloraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).