Phytolaccaceae R.Br.
  • Narr. Exped. Zaire 454. 1818. (5 Mar 1818)
  • Pokeweed Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Phytolaccaceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000466. Accessed on: 18 Sep 2021'

General Information

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, erect, rarely scandent, mostly glabrous, rarely dioecious. Leaves simple, alternate, entire; stipules absent or tiny. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, or leaf-opposed, racemose, cymose, panicled, or spicate. Flowers small, bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic. Tepals 4 or 5, persistent, free or connate at base, equal or unequal, imbricate in bud, green or sometimes other colored. Stamens 4 to many, inserted on a fleshy disk; filaments usually persistent, free or slightly connate at base; anthers 2-loculed, dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, globose; carpels 1 to many, free or connate; ovule solitary in each carpel, basal, campylotropous. Styles persistent, short or absent, erect or curved, as many as carpels. Fruit fleshy, a berry or drupe, rarely a capsule. Seeds reniform or oblate, small; testa membranous or hard and fragile, smooth or wrinkly; embryo large, curved, surrounding copious mealy endosperm.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, trees, or vines, annual or perennial. Leaves alternate, opposite, or appearing whorled; stipules minute or absent; blade pinnately veined, margins entire, often undulate. Inflorescences axillary, terminal, or leaf-opposed spikes, racemes, panicles, or compound dichasia; bract 1; bracteoles 2. Flowers hypogynous (epigynous in Agdestis), radially symmetric; sepals usually persistent, 4-8, imbricate in bud, often unequal; petals absent; stamens 4-30[-100], sometimes borne in 1-2 whorls on hypogynous disk; gynoecium 1-12[-18]-carpellate, the carpels connate or distinct; ovaries superior (inferior in Agdestis), 1-12[-18]-locular; placentation basal; ovules 1 per locule; styles distinct (connate in Agdestis). Fruits achenes, berries, or cypselas. Seeds: perisperm present; embryo curved. x = 9.

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    Morphology

    Seed erect, with the large embryo in the periphery and enclosing the endosperm

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    Ovary superior, composed of 1 or several carpels either free or variously connate; style almost none or short; ovule solitary in each carpel, basal

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    Fruit of 1 or many carpels, fleshy or dry

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    Petals absent

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    Stamens 3 to many, often inserted on a hypogynous disk; filaments free or slightly connate at the base; anthers 2-celled, cells parallel and dehiscing longitudinally

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    Perianth simple, herbaceous or coriaceous

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    Sepals free or some connate, imbricate, equal or unequal

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    Leaves alternate, entire; stipules absent or minute

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomorphic or nearly so, hypogynous, in simple or compound terminal or axillary racemes

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    Herbs, shrubs or trees

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    Leaves simple, alternate, entire, petiolate to sessile, crystals often visible especially on younger leaves

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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes scrambling

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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, spicate, racemose or paniculate

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    Stipules absent (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), minute or thorny

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    Fruit of 1-many, free or connate carpels, fleshy or dry, sometimes winged; seed subglobose, discoidal or reniform, often compressed; testa membranous or brittle; endosperm present

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    Ovary usually superior, composed of 1-many free or connate carpels; ovule basal, solitary in each carpel; styles absent or same number as carpels, free or united at base; stigmas linear or capitate

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    Stamens (3) 4-many, 1–2-seriate, often inserted on more or less fleshy, annular disk, irregularly arranged or alternate to sepals; filaments slender, free or connate at base; anthers dorsi-or basifixed, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Petals absent

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    Sepals 4–5, free or connate towards base, imbricate

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    Flowers bracteate and bracteolate, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then usually with rudimentary aborted organs), usually actinomorphic

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    Petals generally absent (present only in Stegnosperma)

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    Stamens (3–)4–many in 1–several whorls, when definite alternate with the sepals, usually inserted on a ± fleshy disk; filaments free or united at the base; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing lengthwise

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    Ovary superior or rarely semi-inferior, of 1–many free or united 1-ovulate carpels; styles as many as the carpels, free or connate at the base, short, sometimes lacking; stigmas linear or capitate; ovule basal, shortly stalked, campylotropous

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    Fruit of 1–numerous free or united carpels, fleshy or dry, sometimes winged

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    Stipules generally lacking

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    Inflorescences racemose, spicate or paniculate, terminal, lateral or axillary; bracts and paired bracteoles small

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    Flowers small, hermaphrodite or ?and ? (then rudiments at least of aborted organs still present), usually regular

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    Sepals 4–5 (rarely more), free or partially united, imbricate, usually persistent, sometimes brightly coloured

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    Woody or herbaceous, erect or scrambling

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    • Source: [
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    Leaves alternate, simple, entire, pinnately nerved, with crystals generally easily visible in the younger leaves

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    Seed subglobose, discoidal or reniform, with a membranous or brittle testa, occasionally arillate; embryo annular, surrounding the endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Plantes'herbacées ou ligneuses, parfois monoïques ou dioïques, généralement glabres.'Tiges'parfois grimpantes ou rampantes.'Feuilles'alternes, simples, entières, généralement dépourvues de stipules, renfermant souvent des cristaux d'oxalate de calcium.'Inflorescences'en grappes simples ou composées, parfois spiciformes, terminales ou axillaires; bractées et bractéoles petites, rarement absentes.'Fleurs'☿ ou ♂♀, les unisexuées contenant presque toujours des vestiges des organes avortés, petites, généralement actinomorphes; périgone généralement simple, herbacé, membraneux ou coriace, rarement coloré, à 4-5 tépales (rarement plus), égaux ou non, entièrement ou partiellement libres, imbriqués, persistant généralement à l'état fructifère, rarement pétales et sépales; étamines (3) 4-∞, généralement insérées sur un disque, rarement périgynes, disposées en 1 ou plusieurs verticilles; filets filiformes ou subulés, libres ou un peu soudés à la base; anthères introrses, 2-loculaires, basi- ou dorsifixes, à déhiscence longitudinale; disque hypogyne, annulaire, parfois absent; ovaire généralement supère, à 1-∞ carpelles libres ou soudés, 1-ovules; styles courts, en même nombre que les carpelles, libres ou rarement soudés, parfois nuls; stigmates papilleux, capités ou pénicillés; ovules campylotropes, à 2 téguments et micropyle infère généralement ex-trorse, insérés à la base ou à l'angle supérieur des loges, à funicule court et épais.'Fruit'à 1-plusieurs carpelles libres ou soudés, coriace ou crustacé, samariforme ou bacciforme, sec ou charnu.'Graine subglobuleuse, lenticulaire ou réniforme, souvent comprimée, dressée, à testa généralement crustacé; arille petit ou nul; embryon courbé entourant l'albumen farineux ou charnu; cotylédons foliacés ou subcylindriques; radicule proche du hile.\n\t\t\tDix-sept genres, surtout américains, comptant une centaines d'espèces. Certaines espèces ont des organes saponifères (racine, fruit); d'autres contiennent des toxines utilisées comme remèdes; beaucoup de jeunes pousses sont consommées comme légume; plusieurs espèces ont une odeur d'ail.

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Behnke, H.-D., C. Chang, I. J. Eifert, and T. J. Mabry. 1974. Betalains and P-type sieve-tube plastids in Petiveria and Agdestis (Phytolaccaceae). Taxon 23: 541-542. Brown, G. K. and G. S. Varadarajan. 1985. Studies in Caryophyllales I: Re-evaluation of classification of Phytolaccaceae s.l. Syst. Bot. 10: 49-63. Heimerl, A. 1934. Phytolaccaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien..., ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 16c, pp. 135-164. Nowicke, J. W. 1968. Palynotaxonomic study of the Phytolaccaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 55: 294-364. Rogers, G. K. 1985. The genera of Phytolaccaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 1-37. Thieret, J. W. 1966b. Seeds of some United States Phytolaccaceae and Aizoaceae. Sida 2: 352-360. Walter, H. P. H. 1906. Die Diagramme der Phytolaccaceen. Leipzig. [Preprinted from Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 37(suppl.): 1-57.] Walter, H. P. H. 1909. Phytolaccaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler, ed. 1900-1953. Das Pflanzenreich.... 107 vols. Berlin. Vol. 39[IV,83], pp. 1-154. Wilson, P. 1932. Petiveriaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 21, pp. 257-266.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Pokeweed Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Phytolaccaceae
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).