Piperaceae Giseke
  • Prae. Ord. Nat. Pl. 123. 1792. (Apr 1792)
  • Pepper family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Piperaceae Giseke. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000471. Accessed on: 24 Nov 2020'

General Information

Herbs, shrubs, or climbers, rarely trees, usually aromatic. Vascular bundles ± scattered in transverse section in a monocotyledonlike manner. Tip of stem sometimes enclosed within a stipulelike sheath, the prophyll, sometimes adnate to petiole, absent in Peperomia. Leaves alternate, often opposite or whorled in Peperomia, simple, base often asymmetric, palmately or pinnately veined. Inflorescence a pedunculate spike, rarely grouped into an umbel, rarely a raceme (in Zippelia), leaf-opposed or axillary, rarely terminal. Flowers small, bisexual, hermaphroditic, polygamous or dioecious, nearly always sessile; bracts small, usually peltate or cupular, usually without perianth. Stamens 1-10; filaments usually free; anthers 2-locular, distinct or connate, longitudinally dehiscent. Gynoecium 2-5-carpellate, connate; ovary superior, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous; stigmas 1-5, sessile or with very short styles. Fruit a small drupe or nutlet; pericarp fleshy, thin or dry, sometimes with sticky papillae (in Peperomia) or glochidiate spines (in Zippelia). Seeds with copious starchy perisperm and a minute embryo embedded in small endosperm.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Small trees, shrubs, or perennial or annual herbs , often rhizomatous, sometimes aromatic, glabrous, pubescent, or glandular-dotted, terrestrial or epiphytic. Stems simple or branched; vascular bundles in more than 1 ring or scattered. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, simple; stipules present, adnate to petiole; petioles usually present. Leaf blade: margins entire. Inflorescences terminal, opposite leaves, or axillary, spikes. Flowers bisexual; perianth absent, each flower subtended by peltate bract; stamens 2 - 6, hypogynous, anthers 2-locular; pistil 1, 1- or 3-4-carpellate; ovary 1-locular, superior; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigmas usually 3-4. Fruits drupelike. Seed 1; endosperm scanty; perisperm abundant; embryo minute.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Leaves usually alternate, entire, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate, stipules adnate to the petiole or absent

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    Flowers minute, hermaphrodite or unisexual, usually densely spicate or spikes umbellate

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    Stamens 2–6, hypogynous; filaments usually free; anthers 2-celled, distinct or confluent

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    Herbs or shrubs, erect or scandent; vascular bundles more or less scattered, as in Monocotyledones

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    Perianth absent

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    Fruit baccate, small, with a succulent, thin or dry pericarp

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    Ovary superior, 1-celled, 1-ovuled; stigmas 1–5, short; ovule erect

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    Seeds small, with small endosperm and copious mealy perisperm; embryo very small

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    Stipules adnate to the petiole, or absent

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    Stamens 2–6 (1–10); filaments thick, usually free; anthers 2-thecous, erect, distinct or confluent, basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Ovary superior, 1-locular, 1-ovulate; ovule basal, orthotropous, erect; styles 1–5 or absent; stigmas 1–5 capitate, linear or penicillate, central or excentric

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    Fruit an indehiscent drupe (considered a berry by some authors) small, free, sessile or pedunculate with succulent or thin dry pericarps

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    Seed ± globose, with little endosperm but copious perisperm; embryo very small

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    Stems with distinct vascular bundles, sometimes scattered as in Monocotyledons, often with jointed and swollen nodes, and often ± zigzag

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    Leaves usually alternate, less often opposite or verticillate, simple, entire, petiolate, thin to very succulent, often glandular-pellucid, pinnately or palmately nerved

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    Annual or perennial, often succulent herbs with erect or creeping stems, sometimes epiphytic, or erect sometimes scrambling or climbing subshrubs or shrubs, or lianes, occasionally slender trees (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), without latex, frequently aromatic; plants dioecious, monoecious or with hermaphrodite flowers

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    Flowers minute, mostly hermaphrodite, sometimes unisexual or polygamous, each flower subtended by a minute bract; perianth absent

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    Inflorescences terminal, axillary or leaf-opposed with flowers in simple, dense and ± fleshy spikes, more rarely in racemes or spikes grouped in umbels

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    Arbustes , lianes ou herbes, à substances aromatiques et à goût piquant.'Feuilles'entières, alternes, opposées ou verticillées.'Épis'axillaires, terminaux ou opposés aux feuilles, solitaires ou groupés, cylindriques, denses, pouvant se transformer en grappes après la fécondation.'Fleurs'petites, nues, ♂, ♀ ou ☿, situées à l'aisselle d'une bractée généralement peltée abritant l'ovaire et les étamines avant leur maturité; étamines 1-6; ovaire à 1-6 carpelles, 1-loculaire, à 1 ovule orthotrope.'Baies ou drupes, en général peu charnues; graines à périsperme très développé et riches en réserves autour de l'embryon.\n\t\t\tFamille renfermant 2 des plus grands genres du règne végétal :'Piper'et'Peperomia , caractéristiques des forêts intertropicales où ils constituent, dans certaines régions, un élément important du sous-bois, mais dont le rôle au Congo belge est assez secondaire.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Candolle, C. de. 1869. Piperaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. de Candolle, eds. 1823-1873. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis.... 17 vols. Paris etc. Vol. 16, part 1, pp. 235-471. Trelease, W. and T. G. Yuncker. 1950. The Piperaceae of Northern South America. 2 vols. Urbana.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Pepper family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Piperaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).