Ranunculaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 231. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Crowfoot Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Ranunculaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000514. Accessed on: 06 Jun 2020'

General Information

Herbs, sometimes woody or herbaceous climbers or low shrubs , perennial or annual, often rhizomatous. Stems unarmed. Leaves usually basal and cauline, alternate or sometimes opposite, rarely whorled, simple or variously compound; stipules present or absent; petioles usually present, often proximally sheathing. Leaf blade undivided or more commonly divided or compound, base cordate, sometimes truncate or cuneate, margins entire, toothed, or incised; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, umbels, panicles, or spikes, or flowers solitary, flowers pedicellate or sessile. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, inconspicuous or showy, radially or bilaterally symmetric; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous; sepals usually imbricate, 3-6(-20), distinct, often petaloid and colored, occasionally spurred; petals 0-26, distinct (connate in Consolida ), plane, cup-shaped, funnel-shaped, or spurred, conspicuous or greatly reduced; nectary usually present, rarely absent; stamens 5-many, distinct; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; staminodes absent (except in Aquilegia and Clematis ); pistils 1-many; styles present or absent, often persistent in fruit as beak. Fruits achenes, follicles, or rarely utricles, capsules, or berries, often aggregated into globose to cylindric heads. Seeds 1-many per ovary, never stalked, not arillate; endosperm abundant; embryo usually small.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs perennial or annual, sometimes subshrubs or herbaceous or woody vines. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, simple or variously compound, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free, petaloid or sepaloid, imbricate or sometimes valvate in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous, rarely few, free; filaments linear or filiform; anthers latrorse, introrse, or extrorse; sometimes some sterile stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate to various degrees; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.

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    Morphology

    Stamens numerous, free from one another; anthers dehiscing longitudinally

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    Carpels numerous, free or rarely partially connate, with a slightly bifid style or subsessile stigma

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    Petals when present often with a nectariferous claw

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    Seeds small, usually smooth; embryo very small, at the base of horny or fleshy endosperm

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    Ovules numerous or solitary

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    Fruit a bunch of follicles, rarely baccate, or of dry achenes with often persistent and elongated styles

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    Indumentum of simple hairs

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, hypogynous, usually actinomorphic

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    Perianth usually double, of calyx and corolla, or rarely the calyx petaloid and the petals absent

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    Sepals imbricate or valvate

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    Perennial (rarely annual) herbs with alternate leaves, or rarely shrubs or climbers with opposite leaves; stipules absent

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    Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hypogynous, bisexual or sometimes polygamous or dioecious

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    Inflorescences generally terminal and many-flowered or more rarely with few or solitary flowers

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    Leaves simple or compound, entire, lobed or dissected, usually with sheathing bases

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    Annual or perennial herbs with radical and alternate or spiral leaves, or shrublets or woody climbers with opposite or verticillate leaves

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    Petals free, sometimes nectariferous, often absent

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    Sepals free, often petaloid

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    Carpels indefinite in number, few or solitary, free or more or less united; ovules 1-several

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    Stamens indefinite in number; anthers attached at the base, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Seeds with endosperm

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    Fruit usually of achenes, drupelets or follicles, rarely a capsule or berry

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    Seeds without arils, with endosperm

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruits achenes, drupelets, follicles, or capsules

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    Petals sometimes absent, if present free, hypogynous, some nectariferous

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    Sepals free, hypogynous, sometimes petaloid

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    Carpels indefinite in number, few, or solitary, free or more or less joined together (if not solitary), with one or several ovules

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    Stamens indefinite in number, hypogynous

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    Leaves frequently compound with sheathing bases and most often without stipules, spirally arranged or opposite

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    Herbs or woody climbers or subshrubs

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    Flowers regular or irregular

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    Inflorescence generally terminal and many flowered, more rarely with few flowers, or these solitary

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Brayshaw, T. C. 1989. Buttercups, Waterlilies, and Their Relatives (the Order Ranales) in British Columbia. Victoria. [Roy. Brit. Columbia Mus. Mem. 1.] Duncan, T. and C. S. Keener. 1991. A classification of the Ranunculaceae with special reference to the Western Hemisphere. Phytologia 70: 24-27. Tamura, M. 1963. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae I. Sci. Rep. Coll. Gen. Educ. Osaka Univ. 11: 115-126. Tamura, M. 1993. Ranunculaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 2, pp. 563-583. Ziman, S. N. and C. S. Keener. 1989. A geographical analysis of the family Ranunculaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 1012-1049.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Crowfoot Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Ranunculaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).