Rhizophoraceae Pers.
  • Syn. Pl. 2(1): 2. 1806. (Nov 1806)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Rhizophoraceae Pers. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000527. Accessed on: 05 Dec 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or trees, evergreen, synoecious [dioecious]. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules present, interpetiolar; petiole present; blade margins entire [serrulate near apex]; venation pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, cymes [fascicles or flowers solitary]. Flowers bisexual [rarely unisexual]; perianth and androecium perigynous [hypogynous or epigynous]; hypanthium completely adnate to ovary [adnate to ovary proximally and free distally, or absent]; sepals 4[–16], distinct or connate basally, valvate; petals 4[–16], distinct; nectary present [absent]; stamens [4 or]8[–32], distinct [connate basally], free; anthers dehiscing by adaxial valve [longitudinal slits]; pistil 1, 2[–5(–20)]-carpellate; ovary 1/2-inferior [superior to inferior], [1–]2[–5(–10)]-locular, placentation apical-axile; ovules 2[–8] per locule, anatropous [hemitropous]; style [0–]1; stigmas [1–]2[–4]. Fruits berries [capsules or drupes]. Seeds 1 per fruit [1 per locule].

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, evergreen, without spines, often with aerial roots. Stem nodes swollen. Stipules interpetiolar, sheathing terminal bud, caducous. Leaves simple, opposite or distichous, petiolate; leaf blade leathery, usually glabrous, margin entire, serrulate near apex, or completely serrulate. Inflorescences axillary, dense cymes. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic; hypanthium present [or absent]. Calyx lobes 4-16, inserted on rim of hypanthium, free or scarcely connate a base, valvate, persistent in fruit. Petals usually as many as sepals, free, usually caducous, margin entire, lacerate, or 2-cleft. Stamens twice as many as calyx lobes; anther locules 4 to many, dehiscing longitudinally or by an adaxial valve. Hypogynous disk present or absent. Ovary inferior or half-inferior; carpels 2-5(-20), 2-8-loculed; ovules usually 2 per locule, pendulous; style 1; stigma entire, capitate, or lobed. Fruit pulpy or leathery, indehiscent. Seeds 1 to few, viviparous; seedling (propagule) 7-80 cm when shed (except in Carallia and Pellacalyx).

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Stamens usually twice as many as the petals, sometimes ¥ (indeterminate number), usually in 1 whorl, free, epipetalous or adnate to the calyx-tube, variously inserted in relation to the disk, when present; filaments usually subulate to ± filiform, sometimes very short; anthers 4-locular and dehiscing longitudinally or, rarely, multilocular and dehiscing by a large ventral valve (Rhizophora), dorsifixed, introrse

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary syncarpous, (l)2–4(5)-locular, inferior to superior; placentae axile, each with usually 2 (1 in Anisophyllea) pendulous, anatropous ovules; style usually single or 4–5(8) (Anisophylle), ± persistent, with entire or ± lobed stigmas

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Petals as many as the calyx-lobes and alternating with them, free, often clawed, divided above to rarely entire, usually fleshy and conduplicate, caducous or rarely persistent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Disk fleshy, annular or ± cup-shaped, crenate, flat or lobed, rarely absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry, a drupe (Anisophyllea) or a dry, septicidally dehiscent, 2–4-loculed capsule (Cassipourea)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Monoecious trees, shrubs or, rarely, undershrubs; young branches glabrous or glabrescent with age

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1 or more, sometimes arillate (Cassipourea), often viviparous (mangrove species); embryo straight or curved and often with green cotyledons; endosperm present or rarely absent (Anisophylled)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves simple, petiolate, usually isomorphic, decussate (very rarely 3(4)-nate), with interpetiolar and caducous stipules, or rarely dimorphic, alternate, without stipules (Anisophyllea); nervation generally pinnate, rarely curvinerved and with 1–2 intramarginal nerves (Anisophyllea)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually bisexual, rarely unisexual or polygamous, actinomorphic, with a pair of ± connate bracteoles, rarely ebracteolate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx gamosepalous, usually ± adnate to the ovary, persistent in fruit; calyx-lobes (3)4–5(7) or 8–15 (Bruguiera), valvate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences simple or branched, axillary or, rarely, supra-axillary, of cymes (lax or condensed and clustered), racemes, panicles, fascicles or spikes, rarely a solitary flower

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds usually albuminous (not in >i>Anisophyllea), sometimes arillate, often viviparous; embryo straight and often with green cotyledons

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry (rarely dehiscent), rarely a drupe or a dry septicidally dehiscent 2–4-celled capsule

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary syncarpous, superior to inferior, (1–) 2–4 (–5)-celled; placentae axile, each with usually 2 pendulous anatropous ovules (1 in >i>Anisophyllea); stigma usually divided

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens perigynous or epigynous, 2–4 times as many as the calyx-lobes, usually in one whorl, sometimes in pairs opposite the petals, variously inserted in relation to the disc if present; filaments sometimes very short; anthers introrse, characteristically 4-celled and dehiscing longitudinally (with numerous pollen sacs, dehiscing irregularly in Rhizophora)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals equalling calyx-lobes in number, distinct, often clawed, sometimes fleshy or folded, frequently divided above

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Calyx connate, 4–15-partite, valvate in aestivation, persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually bisexual (rarely monoecious) regular, axillary, solitary to numerous in dichotomous cymes, racemes of spikes or fascicles

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Shrubs and trees

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves simple, usually opposite and persistent; stipules interpetiolar, caducous or absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Arbres, arbustes ou suffrutex.'Feuilles'simples, opposées, alternes ou verticillées, stipulées ou exstipulées. Cymes, fascicules, épis, ou fleurs solitaires.'Fleurs'généralement 4-5-mères; calice ± longuement soudé; pétales libres, entiers ou laciniés; étamines 2-4(5) fois aussi nombreuses que les pétales, libres ou soudées à la base, rarement soudées en tube; anthères introrses, 4-loculaires et à déhiscence longitudinale, ou multiloculaires et déhiscentes par un clapet ventral; disque présent; ovaire syncarpe, supère ou infère, (1-) 2-4 (-5)-loculaire, généralement à 2 ovules penduleux par loge.'Fruits': baies, drupes ou capsules.'Graines souvent arillées.\n\t\t\tFamille tropicale, principalement de l'Ancien Monde, comprenant une quinzaine de genres et une centaine d'espèces. En Afrique : 8 genres et une cinquantaine d'espèces. Pour la Flore: 5 genres et 17 espèces.\n\t\t\tRécemment, Tobe & Raven (Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden, 74 : 1-26. 1987) ont, sur base d'arguments embryologiques, démontré que les Anisophylleaceae (comprenant Anisophyllea R. Br., Combretocarpus Hook. f., Poga Pierre et Polygonanthus Ducke) devaient, comme déjà suggéré par d'autres auteurs (notamment Cronquist) être séparées des Rhizophoraceae. Toutefois, dans un but d'uniformité avec les autres Flores d'Afrique, et sans vouloir prendre position sur le fond, nous avons maintenu le genre Anisophyllea dans les Rhizophoraceae.

  • Provided by: [E].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Graham, S. A. 1964. The genera of Rhizophoraceae and Combretaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 285–301. Tomlinson, P. B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • E http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Rhizophoraceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).