Sapotaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 151. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Sapotaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000545. Accessed on: 29 Nov 2020'

General Information

Trees or shrubs, usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, usually in sessile axillary clusters, rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate. Calyx a single whorl of usually 4--6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2--4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages. Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube, as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous. Style 1, often apically lobed. Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Shrubs or trees, deciduous or evergreen, sap milky. Leaves alternate or whorled (fascicled) on short shoots, simple; stipules present or absent; petiole with decurrent, adaxial wing forming channel or groove; blade margins entire; venation pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, fasciculate or solitary flowers at leafy or defoliated nodes on older growth. Flowers bisexual [unisexual]; perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals [2-]4-8[-11], distinct; petals 4-8[-9], connate proximally, lobes not divided or divided into 1 median and 2 lateral [abaxial] segments, corolla rotate, cyathiform, or tubular; nectary disc present; stamens 4-8[-12], antipetalous, epipetalous; anthers dehiscent by longitudinal slits; pistils 1, [1-]3-12[-30]-carpellate; ovary superior, [1-] 3-12[-15]-locular; placentation axile, basal, or basiventral; ovules anatropous or hemitropous, unitegmic, tenuinucellate; styles 1, terminal, exserted or included; stigmas 1, capitate or slightly lobed. Fruits baccate [capsular]. Seeds 1-10, brown to black, shiny, indurate; hilum prominent; embryo vertical, oblique, or horizontal; endosperm oily or absent.

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    Morphology

    Distinguished by the woody habit, alternate leaves without or with caducous stipules, and regular flowers, mostly with petaloid staminodes

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    Seeds with a bony, often shining testa, and a large broad hilum; endosperm mostly scanty; embryo large, with small radicle and broad foliaceous cotyledons

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    Fruit 1- many-celled, often a rather hard berry, rarely a capsule

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    Trees, shrubs, or rarely climbers, often with milky juice

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    Leaves alternate, entire, leathery; stipules usually absent

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    Corolla 4-8-lobed, lobes 1-2-seriate, imbricate, sometimes with petaloid external appendages

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    Stamens inserted on the corolla, the fertile ones equalling the corolla-lobes and opposite to them, or more numerous and 2- or more-seriate; staminodes sometimes present; anthers opening lengthwise

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, usually small

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    Calyx 4-8-lobed

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    Ovary several-celled, superior; style simple

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    Ovules solitary in each cell, ascending from the inner axil

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    Indumentum consisting of T–shaped, Y–shaped or medifixed hairs (this is usually apparent only under high magnification; see Tab. 44, fig. 3)

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    Leaves stipulate or exstipulate, petiolate, alternate or rarely opposite or subopposite (not in FZ area), simple, entire or very rarely dentate (not in FZ area), very often grouped at ends of branches

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    Trees and shrubs, very rarely (1 species) a liane, characteristically with latex in all parts; branching pattern often repeatedly subterminal

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    Corolla gamopetalous, the number of lobes equalling that of calyx segments; petals simple or each with two dorsi–lateral petaloid appendages

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    Stamens oppositipetalous and epipetalous, equalling petals in number or more numerous (not in FZ area), inserted at various levels in the corolla–tube; anthers extrorse or less often introrse, 2–thecous, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite or rarely female by reduction of stamens, usually solitary or in fascicles in leaf axils or on older wood (occasionally plants cauliflorous), very rarely in racemes (not in FZ area)

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    Calyx uniSériate, (4) 5 (6)–merous, orbiseriate with 2 + 2, 3 + 3 or 4 + 4 segments, sepals free or shortly united at base

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    Seeds usually ± compressed–ellipsoid to subglobose, with shiny testa; scar basal, lateral or basilateral, varying in shape and size; endosperm copious or ± absent and cotyledons correspondingly thin and leafy or swollen and fleshy

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    Staminodes often present, always inserted on the corolla at the base of the sinus between lobes, equalling corolla–lobes in number

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    Ovary superior, syncarpous, conical or suborbicular, usually densely hairy, usually with as many locules as calyx segments but sometimes more or fewer; placentation axile; locules uniovulate

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    Fruit a berry with sticky, often edible, pulp, or rarely a capsule, several–many–seeded or often 1–seeded

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    Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes and opposite them or more numerous and in 2(-several) whorls; staminodes sometimes present between the corolla-lobes, variously developed; anthers 2-thecous, opening lengthwise

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    Ovary superior, usually 5-many-locular; style simple; ovules solitary in each locule and ascending from the inner angle

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    Stipules present, often caducous, or absent

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    Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils or at nodes below, hermaphrodite or rarely ? by reduction of stamens, regular, generally small

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    Calyx with 4–8 sepals or shortly united lobes in one or two whorls, rarely spiral

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    Corolla usually cream or white, campanulate to shortly tubular, with 4–8 lobes in 1–2 series and sometimes divided into 3 segments

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    Trees or shrubs, rarely climbers, generally with milky juice

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    Leaves alternate, simple, always entire in Africa

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    Seeds with a generally hard smooth often shiny testa; attachment area (scar) small or large, sometimes covering more than half the surface area, softer, often rough and duller in colour; endosperm either copious on either side of flat foliaceous cotyledons or scanty to absent, with the cotyledons then usually thick and fleshy

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    Fruit a berry, with a generally thin outer layer and a juicy or mealy (rarely tough and leathery) pulp in which the seeds are embedded, rarely a capsule

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Anderberg, A. A. and U. Swenson. 2003. Evolutionary lineages in Sapotaceae (Ericales): A cladistic analysis based on ndhF sequence data. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 164: 763-773. Cronquist, A. 1945b. Studies in the Sapotaceae--II. Survey of the North American genera. Lloydia 9: 241-292. Govaerts, R., D. G. Frodin, and T. D. Pennington. 2001. World Checklist and Bibliography of Sapotaceae. Kew. Pennington, T. D. 1990. Sapotaceae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 98+ nos. New York. No. 52. Pennington, T. D. 1991. The Genera of Sapotaceae. Kew and New York. Pennington, T. D. 2004. Sapotaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 9+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 6, pp. 390-421. Swenson, U. and A. A. Anderberg. 2005. Phylogeny, character evolution, and classification of Sapotaceae (Ericales). Cladistics 21: 101-130. Wood, C. E. Jr. and R. B. Channel. 1960. The genera of Ebenales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 41: 1-35.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
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    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Sapotaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).