Scrophulariaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 117–118. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Scrophulariaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000561. Accessed on: 31 Mar 2020'

General Information

Herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely trees; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled, or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple or sometimes pinnately dissected. Inflorescences racemes, spikes, or thyrsoid panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic. Calyx often persistent, (2-)4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate. Corolla sympetalous; limb (3 or)4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous, sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal, free or confluent. Nectary often present at base of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland. Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous, rarely 2 per locule, on axile placentas, anatropous or hemitropous. Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores or irregularly dehiscent, rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous, sometimes winged; testa often reticulate; hilum lateral or ventral; endosperm fleshy or absent; embryo straight or curved.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Calyx imbricate or valvate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Corolla-lobes imbricate

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    Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic

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    Ovules numerous on axile placentas

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    Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Fruit a capsule or berry

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    Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees

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    • Source: [
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    Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, heads or panicles, arranged in racemes or cymes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate

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    Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading

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    Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base

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    Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect

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    Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate

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    Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell

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    Ovules many to numerous in each cell

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    Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent

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    Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Scrophulariaceae
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).