Ulmaceae Mirb.
  • Elém. Physiol. Vég. Bot. 2: 905. 1815. (24-30 Jun 1815)
  • Elm Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Ulmaceae Mirb. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000630. Accessed on: 24 Oct 2021'

General Information

Trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Winter buds with scales, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous. Leaves simple, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate; leaf blade pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5)-veined, margin entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary. Flowers monochlamydeous, bisexual, or rarely unisexual or polygamous. Perianth lobes 4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate, persistent or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate to tepals; filaments distinct; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally fissured. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2)-loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged nutlets, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect, curved, or involute; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Trees or shrubs , deciduous (sometimes tardily deciduous in Ulmus ). Bark smooth to deeply fissured or scaly and flaky; sap watery. Leaves alternate [opposite], distichous [or not], simple; stipules present; petiole present. Leaf blade: base often oblique, margins entire or serrate, crenate, or toothed; venation pinnate to palmate-pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, cymes, racemes, fascicles, or flowers solitary, arising from branchlets of previous season (e.g., Ulmus ) or of current season (e.g., Celtis ). Flowers bisexual or unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same [different] plants; sepals persistent, (1-)5(-9), connate [distinct], imbricate or valvate; petals absent; stamens usually as many as calyx lobes, hypogynous, opposite calyx lobes, erect in bud; filaments free or arising from calyx tube, distinct, curved or sigmoid in bud; anthers 2-locular, dehiscence longitudinal; pistils 1, 2(-3)-carpellate; ovary 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule, pendulous from apex of locule, anatropous or amphitropous; styles (1-)2, distinct, receptive stigmatic area decurrent on distal inner margin of style branch. Fruits fleshy drupes, samaras, or nutlike. Seeds 1; arils absent; endosperm absent to scanty, consisting of 1 layer of thick-walled cells; embryo straight or curved.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Trees or shrubs

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    Leaves alternate, simple, often unequal-sided; stipules paired, caducous

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    Flowers fasciculate, hermaphrodite or unisexual

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    Calyx herbaceous, lobes imbricate, persistent

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    Fruit usually compressed, membranous, dry or thinly fleshy, often winged or appendiculate

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    Seed without endosperm; embryo straight or curved

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    Petals absent

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    Stamens inserted at the bottom of the calyx, erect in bud, opposite the calyx-lobes; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Ovary of 2 connate carpels, 1–2-celled; styles 2, divergent

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    Ovules solitary, pendulous from near the top

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    Sepals 4–5(8), imbricate or valvate, free or shortly united, persistent

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    Petals absent

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    Trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious, sometimes spiny

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    Flowers small, unisexual or bisexual, regular, axillary, solitary or in cymes or clusters

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    Leaves alternate, simple; lamina often unequal-sided at base; stipules lateral, caducous

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    Stamens as many as, and opposite to, the calyx lobes or (not in south tropical Africa) a few more, inserted at the base of the calyx, erect in bud; anthers 2-thecous, opening longitudinally

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    Seeds without endosperm; embryo curved or (not in south tropical Africa) straight

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    Fruit thinly fleshy or compressed, dry and ± winged or appendiculate; endocarp hard

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    Ovary superior, of 2 united carpels, 1(2)-locular; styles 2, divergent; ovule solitary, pendulous from or near apex, anatropous

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    Fruits either compressed, dry and ± winged or appendiculate, or thinly fleshy

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    Ovary of 2 connate carpels, 1–2-locular; styles 2, divergent; ovule solitary, pendulous from near the top, anatropous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stamens the same number as the calyx-lobes and opposite them or a few more, inserted at the base of the calyx, erect in bud; anthers 2-thecous, opening lengthwise

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    Petals absent

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    Sepals 4–8, free or shortly united, imbricate or valvate, persistent

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    Flowers small, polygamous, solitary or in axillary cymes or clusters

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    Seeds without endosperm; embryo straight or curved

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees or shrubs, sometimes armed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves simple, alternate; blade often unequal-sided

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stipules lateral, usually free, often small and caducous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Arbres'ou arbustes, souvent polygames, à feuilles alternes, distiques, presque toujours asymétriques, à stipules latérales, libres, généralement petites et caduques.'Fleurs'petites, ♂, ♀ ou ☿, isolées ou réunies en cymes; périanthe simple à 4-6 segments; étamines en même nombre que les segments du périanthe et opposées à ceux-ci, rarement plus nombreuses, dressées dans le bouton; ovaire supère à 1 (2) carpelle, 1-loculaire, à 1 ovule penduleux inséré au sommet de la loge ou plus bas; style divisé en 2 branches souvent divisées à leur tour.'Fruit : samare ou drupe.\n\t\t\tQuatorze genres et environ 120 espèces : 4 genres et 10 espèces au Congo belge, jouant un rôle assez important dans les forêts primaires, surtout de la périphérie de la cuvette centrale, et spécialement'Trema guineensis , dans les reboisements.

  • Provided by: [C].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
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    Distribution

    About 14 genera and 120 species, mostly tropical and north temperate

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    The family is rather poorly represented in Africa, but the species which do occur are mostly widespread across the continent

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Barker, W. T. 1986. Ulmaceae. In: Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, Kans. Pp. 119-123. Elias, T. S. 1970. The genera of Ulmaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 18-40. Giannasi, D. E. 1978. Generic relationships in the Ulmaceae based on flavonoid chemistry. Taxon 27: 331-344. Giannasi, D. E. and K. J. Niklas. 1977. Flavonoids and other constituents of fossil Miocene Celtis and Ulmus (Succor Creek Flora). Science 197: 765-767. Grudzinskaya, I. A. 1965. The Ulmaceae and reasons for distinguishing the Celtidoideae as a separate family Celtidaceae Link. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 52: 1723-1749. Sweitzer, E. M. 1971. The comparative anatomy of Ulmaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 523-585. Zavada, M. 1983. Pollen morphology of Ulmaceae. Grana 22: 23-30.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Elm Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • C http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Flora of North America Association
    Ulmaceae
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).